- 2005 Richard et al. Advances in Neurobiology 
- Anxiety frequently develops before the motor features do, suggesting that anxiety may not represent psychological and social difficulties in adapting to the illness but rather may be linked to specific neurobiologic processes that occur in PD. Most evidence points to disturbances in central noradrenergic systems, but other neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin, dopamine) may be involved as well
having the quality of noradrenaline
containing or releasing norepinephrine or noradrenaline
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