ו־

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See also: ו and ־ו

Aramaic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ו־ (transliteration needed)

  1. and

Hebrew[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

וְ־ (v'-)

  1. and

Usage notes[edit]

  • According to traditional grammar, ו־ takes a few different forms, depending on the word to which it is attached.
    • The default form, used when none of the below rules applies, is וְ־ (v'-). It is also the only form in ordinary use in colloquial Modern Hebrew.
    • When a word begins with יְ־ (y'-), ו־ attaches to it to produce וִי־ (vi-).
    • When a word begins with one of the labial consonants (ב, ו, מ, or פ, acronymized as בומ״ף (bumáf)), or when the first vowel in a word is the sheva (the vowel in בְ) and the first consonant is not י, the form וּ־ (u-) is used.
    • When the vowel in a word is a khataf vowel, ו־ takes the corresponding non-khataf vowel: וַאֲדָמָה (va'adamá), וֶאֱיָל (ve'eyál), וָחֳדָשׁים (vokhodashím).
      • When the khataf vowel is followed by a yud (י), it can optionally become a sh'va, after which the ו־ may also take on a khirik (וִ־). Thus, all three of the following are acceptable combinations of ו־ and הֱיִיתֶם (heyitém, you (plural) were): וֶהֱיִיתֶם,‎ וֶהְיִיתֶם, and וִהְיִיתֶם.
    • When the first vowel in a word is a stressed vowel, the form וָ־ (va-) is optionally used. In modern Hebrew this is usually limited to set phrases such as וָחֵצִי (vakhétsi, and a half).
  • In Ancient Hebrew, ו־ was used before every item of a list except the first; in Modern Hebrew, it's usually only used before the last item, like English and.
  • In Ancient Hebrew, if ו־ was attached to a verb, it would often "flip" its conjugation; a verb in the perfect aspect (which became Modern Hebrew's past tense) would use the suffix conjugation (like Modern Hebrew's future tense), and a verb in the imperfect aspect (which became Modern Hebrew future tense) would use the prefix conjugation (like Modern Hebrew's past tense). This behavior is called וי״ו ההיפוך (vav hahipúkh) "the ו of flipping"; unlike the ordinary וי״ו החיבור (vav hakhibúr) "the ו of connection", it does not necessarily have a connective sense. Additionally, vav hahipukh often used a different vowel from what the ordinary vav hakhibur would, and occasionally caused the accent to shift.[1] [2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.shemayisrael.co.il/parsha/klarberg/archives/vayelech62.htm
  2. ^ http://www.shemayisrael.co.il/parsha/klarberg/archives/vayish63.htm