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유 ←

의 →

Etymology 1[edit]

Sino-Korean word from  (“the female principle yin”).



(eum) (hanja )

  1. yin, the essential female principle in eastern religion or philosophy
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Sino-Korean word from  (“sound, tone, pitch, pronunciation”).


(eum) (hanja )

  1. sound
Derived terms[edit]
  • 음훈 (eumhun, “reading the sound and meaning of a Hanja together”, 音訓)
  • 음악 (eumak, “reading the sound and meaning of a Hanja together”, 音樂)

Etymology 3[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Derivational suffix[edit]


  1. -ness; -tion; -ment
    (eum) is appended to the sequential form of a verb or an adjective that ends with a consonant that is not (l/r), to derive a noun.

Inflectional suffix[edit]


  1. (formal)the act of, the process of, -ing; the status of, being ~, to be ~; that ~

Usage notes[edit]

The nominalized verbs formed by appending (eum) often correspond to the gerund in English, but many have acquired additional meaning:

  • 걷다(걸으니) (geotda(georeu-ni), “to walk”) + (eum): 걸음 (georeum, “step, pace”)
  • 돕다(도우니) (dopda(dou-ni), “to help”) + (eum): 도움 (doum, “assistance, support”)
  • 볶다(볶으니) (bokda(bokkeuni), “to stir-fry”) + (eum): 볶음 (bokkeum, “stir-fried food”)

If the verb/adjective stem ends with a vowel or a consonant (l), (eum) is appended to verb/adjective stem directly instead:

  • 나누다 (nanu-da, “to divide”) + (eum): 나눔 (nanu-m, “division, charity”)
  • 알다 (al-da, “to know”) + (eum): (am, “knowing, knowledge”)
    알다 (al-da, “to know”) + (eum) + (eun): (almeun, “Knowing that ... [is/does/did ...]”)