Wiktionary:About Middle French

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Middle French is the language that falls between Old French and Modern French. The main distinctions between Middle French, Old French and Modern French include the loss of the nominative/oblique case system, and the use of the 'y' where Modern French would use an 'i'.

Criteria for inclusion of terms[edit]

Terms must be attestable per Wiktionary:Criteria for inclusion between 1340 and 1611. From 1612 onward, this is considered Modern French. The choice of these two specific years is to align the English Wiktionary with the English Wikipedia, the French Wikipedia and the French Wiktionary. Other than this, it is somewhat arbitrary.

Lemma forms[edit]

Lemma forms resemble Modern French.

  • Nouns are classed under the singular, or the masculine singular for nouns with masculine and feminine forms (amy/amye)
  • Verb are classed under the infinitive
  • Adjectives are classed under the masculine singular form.
  • Adverb, prepositions, conjunction, interjections are pronouns are usually invariable.


  • The most important factor in deciding which spellings to include is WT:CFI#Attestation, specifically "For terms in extinct languages: usage in at least one contemporaneous source." That is to say, any attested orthography may be included.
  • Where possible, the original orthography should be verified, for example from a screen shot of the original source (example Michel de Montaigne, Essais). Where multiple copies of a text using different orthography are available, all attestable spellings of a word are permitted. For example, iecter and ietter are both found in printed sources between 1360 and 1610, so both are allowable.
  • The Middle French entry for day is iour, not jour which is the Modern French entry. Variants using the 'j' are acceptable if attestable, using the {{alternative form of}} template. See iecter and jecter for an example.
  • The standard Latin s (s) is preferred to the long s (ſ), which should not be used at all in Middle French entries. This is because the long s is considered a typographical variant of the Latin s, rather than as a separate letter.
  • Many of the diacritics (or accents) used in Modern French appear in late Middle French (circa 1550), so when attested, both forms with and without; for example duree and durée. It may be appropriate to use {{alternative form of}} to avoid duplicating definitions. Acute accents are generally found in the last syllable of a word, such as armé, armés, armée, armées. However there are exception; refréchir is attested (see Michel de Montaigne link above).
  • Likewise, the ligature œ appears in late Middle French.
  • Discretion may be used with respect to capitalization. For example MAISON as the first word of a chapter should be listed at maison, not MAISON.
  • The 'nasal' vowels ã, ẽ (sometimes ê) and õ are transcribed as an, en and on respectively. for example bõne is rendered as bonne.
  • The letters 'u' and 'v' are often both written as 'u' in Middle French texts. When pronounced /v/ it should be rendered as 'v' and not 'u'. For example trouuer should be rendered as trouver.


==Middle French==

{{etyl|fro|frm}} {{term|doute|lang=fro}}, etymologically reconstructed to resemble {{etyl|la|frm}} {{term|dubitus|lang=la}}{{attention|la|what is the Latin root?}}


# [[doubt]]
#* {{quote-book|passage=Tressainct Pere, L’esperance que j’ay de la paternelle affection que porterés tousjours {{...}} a tellement vaincu le '''doubte''' qu’aultrement je pouvois avoir de la juste severité de Vostre Saincteté|author=[[wikipedia:Henry IV of France|Henri IV]]|year=1572|title=Lettres Missives}}

{{head|frm|verb form}}

# {{conjugation of|doubter||1|s|pres|ind|lang=frm}}
# {{conjugation of|doubter||3|s|pres|ind|lang=frm}}
# {{conjugation of|doubter||1|s|pres|sub|lang=frm}}
# {{conjugation of|doubter||1|s|pres|sub|lang=frm}}
# {{conjugation of|doubter||2|s|imp|lang=frm}}



  • http://www.books.google.fr, using the 'Recherche avancée' (advanced research) function, select from 1400 to 1599 to include only Middle French books. However, Google Books does not always have its dates right, for example it might pick up a modern version of a text originally written in the 1340-1611 period
  • http://micmap.org/dicfro/chercher/dictionnaire-godefroy, an 'Old French' dictionary which includes words at least up to 1611
  • The French Wikisource, a good source of durably archived Middle French texts.
  • Gallica, online digital library.

Appropriate sources for a single mention[edit]

Per WT:CFI#Attestation, dead languages may have entries based on a single mention, if this mention is from "materials deemed appropriate as the only sources for entries based on a single mention". The following are considered such source

  • Dictionnaire de l'ancienne langue française et de tous ses dialectes du IXe au XVe siècle (Godefroy, Frédéric)

See also[edit]