Wiktionary:About Slovene

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Slovene is a South Slavic language spoken in Slovenia, and also in some parts of Austria, Hungary and Italy. It is closely related to the Kajkavian dialect of (Serbo-)Croatian and a bit less so to the standard Štokavian dialect that is the base of the Croatian, Bosnian and Serbian national standards.

Phonology and orthography[edit]

The standard Slovene orthography is deficient in several respects:

  • Accent and tone are not indicated.
  • The difference between closed /eː/ /oː/ and open /ɛː/ /ɔː/ is not indicated.
  • The phoneme /ə/ is not distinguished, and represented simply with the letter <e>.
  • Syllable-finally, letter <l> can represent either /l/ or /w/.

Dictionaries and other learning materials use extra characters/diacritics to compensate. Regarding vowels and length, there are two common but incompatible systems in use:

  • The stress orthography indicates placement of the accent/stress and the distinction between closed and open mid-vowels, but it does not distinguish tones.
    • Accented long vowels are indicated with an acute accent <á>.
    • Accented short vowels with a grave accent <à>.
    • The signs <é> and <ó> denote the long closed vowels /eː/ and /oː/, while the open vowels /ɛː/ and /ɔː/ are written as <ê> and <ô> with a circumflex.
  • The tonal orthography resembles that used for Serbo-Croatian.
    • Accented long vowels with low/rising tone use an acute accent <á>.
    • Accented long vowels with high/falling tone use an inverted breve <ȃ>.
    • Accented short vowels with low/rising tone use a grave accent <à>. This occurs only on the schwa in Slovene.
    • Accented short vowels with high/falling tone use a double grave accent <ȁ>. All other accented short vowels are of this type.
    • The distinction between closed and open e and o is denoted with a dot under the vowel. Open /ɛː/ and /ɔː/ are written as simply <é>/<ê> and <ó>/<ô>, while closed /eː/ and /oː/ are written as <ẹ́>/<ệ> and <ọ́>/<ộ>.

These representations are detailed further on Appendix:Slovene pronunciation.

Regarding these three orthographic representations, Wiktionary adopts the following practice for Slovene entries:

  • The names of entries use the common standard orthography, without any diacritics (apart from the haček which is normally part of the letters š, ž, č).
  • In the headword line, inflection tables and links to synonyms, derived terms or cognates in etymologies of other languages, the stress orthography is used. While it is less precise, it is the more common of the two and the primary orthography used in other Slovene dictionaries and word lists such as SSKJ and SP.
  • In the "Pronunciation" section the pronunciation is indicated in IPA using the {{IPA}} template. This should use IPA tone diacritics as well as the stress marker ˈ, so that both the dialects with tones and those without are accommodated.
  • Also in the "Pronunciation" section, on the line below the IPA, the tonal orthography is given using the {{sl-tonal}} template. Additionally, /ə/ is indicated as <ə> in this representation, and <l> that is pronounced /w/ is written as <ł>. If the word is written in a non-native orthography (such as Sydney), it should be respelled.
  • In running text, such as usage examples, no diacritics are used, to reflect the language as it is actually written.

For example, the entry will be named slovenščina, it is linked to using {{l|sl|slovénščina}}. The entry itself should have the full IPA transcription {{IPA|lang=sl|/slɔˈʋèːnʃtʃina/}} in the pronunciation section, and the tonal orthography {{sl-tonal|slovẹ́nščina}} below it.

See also[edit]