draugs

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Latvian[edit]

Draugi

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *draugas (perhaps Proto-Balto-Slavic *draugas), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰrowgʰos (other person, second person), from the stem *dʰrewgʰ- (to be other, to be second). From the meaning “other, second,” two main meanings evolved: “friend” and “enemy, evil” (cf. the evolution of Latin hostis from “stranger” to “enemy” and hospes from “stranger” to “host”). In the Baltic and Slavic languages, only the “friend” meaning eventually survived. The older meaning of “other, second” for Latvian draugs is still sporadically attested in folk songs (draugs vīrs “another man;” cf. also dialectal drauga bērns “stepchild”). Cognates include Lithuanian draũgas (friend, companion), Old Prussian draugiwaldūnen (co-heir) (< “other heir”), Proto-Slavic *drugъ (Old Church Slavonic дроугъ (drugŭ, friend), Belarusian, Ukrainian, Russian друг (drug), Russian друго́й (drugój, other) (< *drugъjь), Ukrainian дру́гий (drúhyj, other, second), Bulgarian дру́гъ (drúg, friend), друг (drug, other), Czech druh (friend), Czech druhý (other, second), Polish drugi (second)), Old Norse draugr (ghost), Old High German gitrog, German Trug (deception, fraud, illusion), Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐌳𐍂𐌰𐌿𐌷𐍄𐍃 (gadrauhts, warrior), Icelandic dróttinn (lord), Old English drihten (lord), Sanskrit द्रुः (druh-, evil demonic being, beast), द्रुःवन् (drúhvan, hostile), द्व्हरति (dvhárati, to put to death, to leat fall), Avestan [script needed] (druxš, demonic being, evil incarnation), [script needed] (družaiti, to tell lies, to tempt), Old Persian 𐎭𐎼𐎢𐎥 (drauga, lying, deceiving).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Noun[edit]

draugs m (1st declension, feminine form: draudzene)

  1. friend (a person with whom one has a friendship)
    bernības, skolas draugs — childhood, school friend
    tuvs draugs — close friend
    sirsnīgi draugi — sincere friends
    būt draugu pulkā — to be in a circle of friends
    būt draugos — to be frends (lit. in friends) (with someone)
    laulātais draugs — husband (lit. married friend)
    dzīves, mūža draugs — husband (lit. life friend; poetic)
    mājas draugsfriend of the house (someone who visits frequently)
    laimei vajadzīgs draugs, ar ko būtu daudz kā kopīga: gan sapņi un prieks, gan uzskati un rūpes — for happiness a friend is necessary, with whom there would be a lot in common: dreams and joys, opinions and concerns
    Ints un Zints dzīvo vienā mājā, mācās vienā skolā, vienā klasē un sēž vienā solā; abi saucas par draugiem un turas kopā kā divi dadži — Ints and Zints live in the same house, study in the same class in the same school, and sit in the same bench; both call themselves friends and keep together like two thistles
  2. (of animals) friend (an animal with whom one has friendly relations; an animal which behaves in a friendly way towards people or other animals)
    četrkājainais draugs — four-legged friend
    zēns ar suni bija nešķirami draugi — the boy and the dog were inseparable friends
    abi kaķi bija draugi — the two cats were friends
  3. (of people) friend, admirer, lover (of something)
    dabas draugs — a friend, lover of nature
    mūzikas draugi — music lovers
    grāmatu draugi — book lovers
    kino draugu klubs — cinema lovers club

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “draugs” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7