pulkstenis

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Latvian[edit]

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 Pulkstenis on Latvian Wikipedia

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Sienas pulkstenis

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

There are various theories about the origin of this word, originally meaning “church bell.” The most likely to be true derives it from an unattested verb *pulsēt (to produce sound) (compare archaic pulstens, dialectal pulstenis (bell), pulkstiens (bell sound, toll)) > *pulksēt with an epenthetic k and the nominalizing suffix -enis. Other suggestions include deriving pulkstenis from pulks (regiment, military unit) and stenēt (to groan, to make noise) (i.e., the regiment's noisy one); from borrowed terms, Middle Low German puls (hit, blow, touch) and stēn (stone); from an old verb pult meaning “to fall” (since that which strikes a bell “falls” on it); from a compound of puls- and sitiens, sitenis “blow”, with an intrusive k. The word was already mentioned in a 1585 catechism (as stundu pulksten(is), “hour bell,” i.e., “clock”)[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Noun[edit]

pulkstenis m (2nd declension)

  1. clock, watch (instrument to mesure time)
    mehāniskais, elektroniskais pulkstenis — mechanical, electronic clock
    sudraba, zelta pulkstenis — silver, golden watch
    pulkstenis tikšķ — the clock is ticking
    pulksteņa rādītāji — the hands of a clock
    pulksteņa svārstsclock pendulum
    labot pulksteni — to fix the clock
    rokas pulkstenis — wrist (lit. arm) watch
    kabatas pulkstenis — pocket watch
    galda, sienas, torņa pulkstenis — table, wall, tower clock
    modinātāja pulkstenis, modinātājpulkstenis — alarm clock
    saules pulkstenis — sun clock
    smilšu pulkstenis — hourglass (lit. sand clock)
    biloģiskais pulkstenis — biological clock
    pulkstenis ir ātrs, iet par ātru — the clock is fast
    pulkstenis iet priekšā, ir priekšā — the clock is fast
    pulkstenis ir vēls, iet par lēnu — the clock is late
  2. the time
    pulkstenis ir četri — it is four o'clock
    pulkstenis vēl nebija pusseptiņi — it wasn't half past six yet
    cik ir pulkstenis? — what time is it?

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “pulkstenis” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.