quadral

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From New Latin quadralis, from quadru- (four-) + -alis

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

quadral (countable and uncountable, plural quadrals)

  1. (grammar) A grammatical number referring to four (or more) things.
    • 2000, Greville G. Corbett, Number, page 30:
      These are the three best claims for quadrals. There are several false trails in the literature, that is, suggestions of other Austronesian languages with quadrals, which turn out in fact to have four number values not five.
    • 2008, Martin Haspelmath, Language typology and language universals: an international handbook, volume 1, page 819:
      There is a question as to whether there are also languages with quadrals (for reference to four entities). However, having raised the issue of paucals, we shall first continue the analysis of these, and only then return to the question []
    • 2009, Michael Cysouw, The Paradigmatic Structure of Person Marking, page 203:
      Another point is that, judging from the existing descriptions, true trials are extremely rare and true quadrals do not exist.
  2. (mathematics) A set of points with all the combinatorial properties of a quadric (a quadric being the set of points of PG(n, q) whose coordinates satisfy a quadradic equation).
    • 1952, TS Motzkin and IJ Schoenberg, On quadral entire functions of n complex variables, cited in the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society on page 184
    • 1984, E. C. Pielou, The interpretation of ecological data: a primer, page 20:
      If we wished to divide the quadrals into classes, there are obviously several ways in which it could be done, all of them arbitrary. The arbitrariness arises because the points exhibit no natural clustering.
    • 2008, David Keith Butler, Quadrals and their associated subspaces[1]
  3. (in discussions of the rhythm of written works) This word needs a definition. Please help out and add a definition, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    • 1925, John Hubert Scott, Rhythmic prose
      The first instinctive step in revising written matter looks to an effecting of quadrals; any later revision aims at a perfecting of the rhythma.
    • 1932, John Hubert Scott, Zilpha Emma Chandler, Phrasal patterns in English prose, page 268:
      thanks to the rhythma,
      in dividing correctly
      many simple quadrals,
      in more involved sentences
      our arrangement shows regularly
      these simple quadrals
      expanding into "periods,"
  4. (printing) This word needs a definition. Please help out and add a definition, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    • (Can we date this quote?), in the Mechanics Magazine (John I Knight, Henry Lacey), volume 1, page 242:
      New or improved machinery to be used in the manufacture of certain kinds of printing types, and also in the manufacture of spaces and quadrals used in setting up printing types.

Adjective[edit]

quadral (not comparable)

  1. (grammar) Referring to four (or more) things; of, in or relating to the quadral grammatical number.
  2. (mathematics) Of or relating to quadral polynomials.

Usage notes[edit]

  • No instance of this grammatical phenomenon has been attested in human languages. See also w:Grammatical number.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • 1952, American Mathematical Society, “Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society”, Journal of the American Mathematical Society, page 184: 
    "A polynomial P(x1, ..., xn is called quadral if it splits into a product of quadratic (or linear) functions in the complex field of coefficients."
  • 2008, Martin Haspelmath, “IX. Typology of morphological and morphosyntactic categories”, in Language typology and language universals: an international handbook, volume 1, page 820:
    The quadral, as we have noted, is primarily used in hortatory discourse and with dyad terms; but otherwise it is used with larger groups, of four or more (an appropriate gloss would be 'several').