tirgus

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Latvian[edit]

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 Tirgus on Latvian Wikipedia

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Tirgus

Etymology[edit]

Some consider this word a borrowing from Old East Slavic търгъ (tŭrgŭ, market, commerce), which agrees with the u in Lithuanian (and Latvian dialectal) tur̃gus, but not with the i in standard tirgus. Others propose that it is the natural development of Proto-Baltic *terg-, *tirg-, from Proto-Indo-European *ter-, *tor-, *tr̥- (to make noise, to talk a lot) (whence Latvian tērzēt, tirzāt (to chat, to chatter), q.v.) with an extra -g (whence also Latvian tērgot, tērgāt (to chat, to chatter), where the long ē is secondary; q.v.). The semantic evolution would be, in this case: “much (loud) talking” > “noise, bustle” (still currently attested; see below) > “(place where there is) much noise, bustle” > “place where people meet, village square, market.” In the 18th and 19th centuries, the meaning “price” is also attested. Cognates include Lithuanian tur̃gus, Proto-Slavic *tъrgъ (Old Church Slavonic тръгъ (trŭgŭ, people gathering, market, marketplace), Old East Slavic търгъ (tŭrgŭ), торгъ (tŭrgŭ, torgŭ, market, commerce), Russian, Ukrainian торг (torg, commerce; (arch.) market; (pl.) auction), Bulgarian търг (tǎrg, auction; commerce), Czech trh (market), Polish targ (market)), Old Norse, Icelandic, Swedish torg (market, marketplace), Danish torv (market, marketplace), Albanian treg (market).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Noun[edit]

tirgus m (3rd declension)

  1. market, marketplace (a square, a building, a space, where agricultural and/or industrial goods are sold and bought; the kind of buying and selling that takes place in such a place)
    tirgus laukumsmarket square, marketplace
    tirgus burzmamarket bustle
    rudens tirgus — autumn market
    zivju tirgus — fish market
    puķu tirgus — flower market
    tirgus cenamarket price
    tirgus somamarket bag
    iepirkties tirgū — to shop in the market
    vest uz tirgu ābolus — to take apples to the market
    gada tirgus, gadatirgus — year market, fair
    nedeļas tirgus — weekly market
    tirgus sievamarket woman (i.e., who trades in a market)
    krāmu tirgus — flea market (where common, used objects are sold)
    melnais tirgus — black market (= illegal market)
  2. (figuratively) noise, uproar, confusion
    netaisiet tirgu! — don't make a market! (= confusion, noise)
    drīz vien bērni sāka kliegt cits caur citu: sacēlas īsts tirgus — soon the children started shouting at each other: a real market (= confusion, uproar) arose
  3. market (system of trading; trade processes, relations)
    iekšējais, vietējais, ārējais tirgus — internal, local, foreign market
    starptautiskais tirgus — international market
    naftas tirgus — the oil market
    brīvais tirgus — free market
    brīvā tirgus ekonomika — free market economy
    tirgus attiecībasmarket relations
    pasaules tirgus — the world market (= international trade system)

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “tirgus” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7