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See also: aes, AES, äes, -aes, a**es, äs, and æs

Old Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]


Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *aiwestom.


áes n (genitive aís, nominative plural áesa)

  1. age, years
    • Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie, vi 58.15:
      Is áis cét bliadan dam.
      I am a hundred years of age.
  2. stage, period
  3. era (of the world)
  4. lifetime
Neuter o-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative áesN áesN áesL, áesa
Vocative áesN áesN áesL, áesa
Accusative áesN áesN áesL, áesa
Genitive aísL áes áesN
Dative áesL áesaib áesaib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization
Derived terms[edit]
  • Irish: aois
  • Manx: eash
  • Scottish Gaelic: aois

Etymology 2[edit]

Perhaps from etymology 1.[1]


áes m (genitive aíso)

  1. (collective) folk, people
    • c. 800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 55d11
      Amal du·berad nech hi ceist do Dauid: “Húare is móir sléb fírinne Dǽ, cid ara fodmai-siu, ⟨a⟩ Dauid, didiu a ndu imnedaib ⁊ frithoircnib fo·daimi? Air it fírían-⟨s⟩u.” Ícaid-som didiu anísin, a n‑as·mbeir iudicia Domini abisus multa .i. ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti amal abis ⁊ amal fudumain. Is ed in sin fod·era in n‑erígim, cid ara fodaim int aís fírían inna fochaidi, ⁊ cid ara mbiat in pecthaig isnaib soinmechaib.
      As though someone had put as a question to David: “Because God’s righteousness is as great as a mountain, why then, David, dost thou suffer what of afflictions and injuries thou sufferest? For thou art righteous.” He solves that then when he says “iudicia Domini abyssus multa”, i.e. there are judgments of God incomprehensible like an abyss and like a depth. That is what causes the complaint why the righteous folk endure tribulations, and why sinners are in prosperity.
Masculine u-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative áes, aís
Vocative áes, aís
Accusative áesN, aís
Genitive áesoH, áesaH, aísoH
Dative áesL, aís
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization
Usage notes[edit]

Almost always qualified by an adjective, a noun in the genitive case, or a relative clause describing what kind of folk are in question.

Derived terms[edit]
  • Irish: aos
  • Scottish Gaelic: aos


Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
áes unchanged n-áes
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]


  1. ^ J. Vendryes, Lexique étymologique de l'irlandais ancien