αἷμα

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See also: αίμα

Ancient Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Uncertain and contested, as many competing theories exist. One possibility is from Proto-Indo-European *sai- (thick or viscous liquid), related to Proto-West Germanic *saim (whence German Seim (viscous fluid)),[1][2][3][4] although some sources reject this as phonologically improbable.[1][2] A different theory relates it to Proto-Indo-European *s(w)okʷós (plant juice, resin), which would make it a doublet of ὀπός (opós, plant juice).[5] Other suggestions include a relation to Ancient Greek αἰονάω (aionáō, to moisten)[2] or to Ancient Greek ἵημι (híēmi, to throw, to flow), thereby making it a doublet of ἧμα (hêma, projectile).[6] Finally, a Northwest Semitic borrowing has been posited, related to Aramaic חַיִּים (ḥayyim, life), Hebrew חַיִּים (ḥayím, life), Phoenician ‎𐤇𐤉𐤌 (‎ḥym, long life).[7]

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Noun[edit]

αἷμᾰ (haîman (genitive αἵμᾰτος); third declension

  1. blood
  2. bloodshed; murder
  3. race; stock; kin, relationship by blood

Inflection[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Byzantine Greek: αἷμα (haîma), αἷμαν (haîman), αἷμας (haîmas), γαῖμα (gaîma)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 38–39
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Frisk, Hjalmar (1960–1972), “αἷμα”, in Griechisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), Heidelberg: Carl Winter
  3. ^ Chantraine, Pierre (1968–1980), “αἷμα”, in Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque (in French), Paris: Klincksieck
  4. ^ Douglas Harper (2001–2024) “-emia”, in Online Etymology Dictionary.
  5. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Bern, München: Francke Verlag
  6. ^ αἷμα in the Diccionario Griego–Español en línea (2006–2024)
  7. ^ Keyser, Paul (2016), “A Semitic Etymology for Greek αἷμα”, in Semitica, volume 58, Leuven: Peeters, →DOI, pages 289-295

Further reading[edit]

  • αἷμα”, in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • αἷμα”, in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • αἷμα”, in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  • αἷμα in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
  • αἷμα”, in Slater, William J. (1969) Lexicon to Pindar, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
  • G129 in Strong, James (1979) Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible
  • αἷμα in the Diccionario Griego–Español en línea (2006–2024)
  • Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language[1], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.
  • αἷμαKriaras, Emmanuel (1969-) Επιτομή του Λεξικού της Μεσαιωνικής Ελληνικής Δημώδους Γραμματείας (Epitomí tou Lexikoú tis Mesaionikís Ellinikís Dimódous Grammateías) [Concise Dictionary of the Kriaras' Dictionary of Medieval Vulgar Greek Literature (1100–1669) Vols. 1–14. Vols 15- under I. Kazazes.)] (in Greek), Thessaloniki: Centre for the Greek language Online edition (abbreviations) Printed edition 2022: 22 vols.)