ξίφος

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Ancient Greek[edit]

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Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Already in Late Mycenaean Greek (Ta-716 from Pylos), attested in the dual 𐀥𐀯𐀟𐀁 (qi-si-pe-e, two swords) (mostly ideographically as 𐃉). Probably of non-Greek origin, likely borrowed from Egyptian zft (sword, knife).[1] If not, perhaps both are from an Old Semitic saïf or sêf,[2] or from a Libyan or "Sea Peoples" word.[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

 
  • (5th BCE Attic) IPA(key): /ksí.pʰos/
  • (1st CE Egyptian) IPA(key): /ˈksi.pʰos/
  • (4th CE Koine) IPA(key): /ˈksi.ɸos/
  • (10th CE Byzantine) IPA(key): /ˈksi.fos/
  • (15th CE Constantinopolitan) IPA(key): /ˈksi.fos/
  • Noun[edit]

    ξῐ́φος (xíphosn (genitive ξῐ́φεος or ξῐ́φους); third declension

    1. sword, the short, straight, double-edged sword of the Iron Age and Classical Antiquity.
      1. the sword-shaped bone of the cuttlefish
        1. swordfish
      2. a type of plant (compare ξιφίον (xiphíon))

    Inflection[edit]

    References[edit]

    • ξίφος in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
    • ξίφος in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
    • ξίφος in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
    • ξίφος in Bailly, Anatole (1935) Le Grand Bailly: Dictionnaire grec-français, Paris: Hachette
    • ξίφος in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
    • ξίφος in Slater, William J. (1969) Lexicon to Pindar, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
    • ξίφος in Trapp, Erich, et al. (1994–2007) Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität besonders des 9.-12. Jahrhunderts [the Lexicon of Byzantine Hellenism, Particularly the 9th–12th Centuries], Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
    • Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language[1], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.
    • A. Heubeck, 'Mykenisch *qi-si-po- = ξίφος', Minos 6 (1958), 114–116.
    1. ^ Černý, Jaroslav (1976) Coptic Etymological Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN
    2. ^ Johannes Dümichen, Historische Inschriften altägyptischer Denkmäler vol. 1, Leipzig (1867), 26-27.
    3. ^ John Linton Myres, Who were the Greeks?, University of California Press, 1930, p. 590

    Greek[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From the Ancient Greek ξίφος (xíphos, s-stem).

    Noun[edit]

    ξίφος (xífosn

    1. sword

    Synonyms[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]