شكال

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: شکال

Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the root ش ك ل(š-k-l) which had an original significance of plaiting hair, to shape or place in a form, to bind or hold in place, to look at or work attentively and skillfully. Attested in Biblical Hebrew שִׂכֵּל֙(crossing or plaiting one's hands) in Genesis 48:14 with connection likely to Akkadian 𒊓𒅗𒇻 (/sakālu/, to balk, to get stuck, to be stopped or held fast) said especially of equids and locks.

The relation to Persian اشکیل(eškil, hobble), اشکل‎(eškel, hobble) is of uncertain nature. But since the Iranian form is backed by Central Kurdish ئەشکێڵ(eşkêll, diameter, diagonal), ئەشکێڵکِردِن(eşkêllkirdin, tie the feet together and throw (the animal)), ئەشکۆڵ(eşkoll), ئەشکەڵە(eşkelle, a wood thing to close door; a wood thing to pitch a tent; a wood instrument of torture), Persian اشکلک(eškelak, a wood instrument of torture), and considering that the coordinate instrument زِيَار(ziyār, twitch) is borrowed from Aramaic זַיָּירָא(zayyārā, squeezer) not attested in the farriery meaning, the present Arabic word is probably loaned likewise from an unattested Aramaic designation for the hobble, and then levelled in its vocalism by being paired[1] with زِيَار(ziyār, twitch), and other words of the horse tack realm like زِمَام‎(zimām, reins), عِنَان(ʿinān, the strap of the bridle, reins), لِجَام(lijām, bridle), رِكَاب(rikāb, stirrup).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

شِكَال (šikālm (plural شُكُل(šukul) or شِكَالَات(šikālāt)) (farriery)

  1. hopple, hobble, pastern; a kind of fetter used to restrain the feet of an animal so that surgery can be performed on it
    • فإذا أَرَدتَ فتح عرق أو وداج فخذ المبضع بين إصبعك الإبهام والسبّابة كأخذك القلم للكتابة به وليكن نصابه في راحتك وتخرج من رأسه خارج طرفي إصبعك المذكورين قدر طول ظفر إبهامك وأقلّ من ذلك إلى قدر نصف ظفر إبهامك ثم أفتح العرق إلى فوق شقّا بليغا برفق وخفّة. وأمّا التوديج يالقضيب وهو معلوم فتركب فيه المبضع وتخرج من طرفه خارج من القضيب قدر طول ظفر إبهامك، ولا تعجل بالضرب بالمبضع حتّى تقف على العرق بعينه وخاصة الوداجين، ولا تودّج حتّى تستوثق من الدابّة بالشكل والزيار ليألُ يضطرب وتختنق الدابّة بالخناق خنقا شديدا ليدرّ العرق. فإنّ ذلك موضوع خبيث وإن جاوزت يدك ربّما أصاب المبضع عرق الماء وهو المريء الدابّة فقتله.‎‎
      If you want to open a vein or jugular, take the scalpel between your thumb and index finger, take it like you take the quill for writing with it, so that its grip is in your palm, and you turn away from its head outwith the two tips of your said fingers by a length of the nail of your thumb and less than that by a half of the nail of your thumb, then you open the vein upwards making a sufficient cut with gentleness and levity. And what concerns the cutting the jugular with the known rod, you mount the scalpel in it and you move away from the rod’s tip by the length of the nail of your thumb, but don’t hasten with hitting with the scalpel until you have discerned the vein by its eye, particularly the two jugulars, and don’t do a jugular cut until you have provided for the security of the beast by hopples and a twitch, so you do not agitate or suffocate the beast at its throat by excessive choking, so the vein flows with abundance. This part being particularly perilous, if your hand go to far then the scalpel could hit the water vein [or windpipe], that is the oesophaghus of the beast, and it would kill it.

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

H7919 in Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible, 1979

  1. ^ Compare for form alignment by reason of conceptual correspondence the classic: Barth, Jakob (1906), “Formangleichung bei begrifflichen Korrespondenzen”, in Orientalische Studien. Theodor Nöldeke zum siebzigsten Geburtstag (2. März 1906), gewidmet von Freunden und Schülern und in ihrem Auftrag herausgegeben von Carl Bezold (in German), Gießen: Alfred Töpelmann, pages 787–796