شهيد

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See also: شهیدand شہید

Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the form I verb شَهِدَ(šahida, to witness, to bear witness), from the root ش ه د(š-h-d). Semantic evolution from "witness" to "martyr" is probably calqued from Ancient Greek μάρτυς (mártus).

Noun[edit]

شَهِيد (šahīdm (plural شُهَدَاء(šuhadāʾ))

  1. witness
    Synonym: شَاهِد(šāhid)
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 24:13:
      لَوْلَا جَاءُوا عَلَيْهِ بِأَرْبَعَةِ شُهَدَاءَ فَإِذْ لَمْ يَأْتُوا بِالشُّهَدَاءِ فَأُولَئِكَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ هُمُ الْكَاذِبُونَ
      lawlā jāʾū ʿalayhi biʾarbaʿati šuhadāʾa faʾiḏ lam yaʾtū bi-š-šuhadāʾi faʾūlaʾika ʿinda l-lahi humu l-kāḏibūna
      Sahih International: And why did the accusers not bring four witnesses to it? If they cannot produce such witnesses, they are the liars in God’s eyes.
  2. martyr, someone killed in battle with the infidels
  3. anyone killed in action

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]