श्वन्

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Sanskrit[edit]

Alternative scripts[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-Iranian *ćwā́, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ (dog). Cognate with Ancient Greek κύων (kúōn, dog), Latin canis (dog), Avestan 𐬯𐬞𐬀𐬥(span, dog), Lithuanian šuo, Old Armenian շուն (šun), Old English hund (whence English hound).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

श्वन् (śvánm

  1. a dog; hound; cur
    • c. 1700 BCE – 1200 BCE, Ṛgveda 2.39.4:
      ना॒वेव॑ नः पारयतं यु॒गेव॒ नभ्ये॑व न उप॒धीव॑ प्र॒धीव॑ ।
      श्वाने॑व नो॒ अरि॑षण्या त॒नूनां॒ खृग॑लेव वि॒स्रसः॑ पातम॒स्मान् ॥
      nāvéva naḥ pārayatam yugéva nábhyeva na upadhī́va pradhī́va.
      śvā́neva no áriṣaṇyā tanū́nām khṛ́galeva visrásaḥ pātamasmā́n.
      Save us like two ships; be like yokes, spokes, and fellies unto us;
      Like two unfailing dogs unto our bodies; and like two staves keep us from falling.
    • c. 400 BCE, Mahābhārata 5.70.70:
      प्रतिघातेन सान्त्वस्य दारुणं संप्रवर्तते ।
      तच्छुनाम्इव गोपादे पण्डितैरुपलक्षितम् ॥
      pratighātena sāntvasya dāruṇaṃ saṃpravartate .
      tacchunāmiva gopāde paṇḍitairupalakṣitam .
      With the failure of appeasement, hostility ensues;
      This is observed by the wise in a gopāda (brawl?) of dog-like men.
    • c. 400 BCE, Mahābhārata 17.3.7:
      अयं श्वा भूतभव्येश भक्तो मां नित्यमेव ह ।
      स गच्छेत मया सार्धमानृशंस्या हि मे मतिः ॥
      ayaṃ śvā bhūtabhavyeśa bhakto māṃ nityameva ha .
      sa gaccheta mayā sārdhamānṛśaṃsyā hi me matiḥ .
      O master of past and present, this dog has been constantly loyal to me like no other.
      Let him go with me side by side, for the sake of my care (for his wellbeing).

Declension[edit]

Masculine an-stem declension of श्वन् (śván)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative श्वा
śvā́
श्वानौ / श्वाना¹
śvā́nau / śvā́nā¹
श्वानः
śvā́naḥ
Vocative श्वन्
śván
श्वानौ / श्वाना¹
śvā́nau / śvā́nā¹
श्वानः
śvā́naḥ
Accusative श्वानम्
śvā́nam
श्वानौ / श्वाना¹
śvā́nau / śvā́nā¹
शुनः
śúnaḥ
Instrumental शुना
śúnā
श्वभ्याम्
śvábhyām
श्वभिः
śvábhiḥ
Dative शुने
śúne
श्वभ्याम्
śvábhyām
श्वभ्यः
śvábhyaḥ
Ablative शुनः
śúnaḥ
श्वभ्याम्
śvábhyām
श्वभ्यः
śvábhyaḥ
Genitive शुनः
śúnaḥ
शुनोः
śúnoḥ
शुनाम्
śúnām
Locative शुनि
śúni
शुनोः
śúnoḥ
श्वसु
śvásu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

Descendants[edit]

  • Dardic:
    • Kalasha: šọ̃́a
    • Kashmiri:
      Arabic: ہوٗن(hūn)
      Devanagari: हून (hūn)
    • Shina: śun
  • Pali: , soṇa
  • Prakrit: [Term?]

Further reading[edit]