The a vowel of present-tense -as plus the t of the Latin/Romance/German passive perfect participle.
- (patient substantive) -ato or -aton Accusative do'ee of an action, in a present relative to when the corresponding verb took place.
- (adjectival participle) ata or -atan Characteristic of an accusative do'ee of an action, in a present relative to the verb. (passive present participle)
- (adverbial participle) -ate In a way characteristic of an accusative do'ee of an action, in a present relative to the verb. (passive present adverbial participle)
Even if the word takes the nominative form (e.g. influato), the word forms a substantive as-if an accusative for the participle's root.
According to rule 6 in Fundamento de Esperanto, all passive participles modify either some form of esti (to be) or an associated noun.