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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From *h₂weg-, of which the zero grade *h₂ug- was reanalysed as having the ablaut vowel before the -w- rather than after it, creating a new variant form of the root. The original root remained in use, however.



  1. to increase, to enlarge

Derived terms[edit]

  • *h₂ewg- (root present)
  • *h₂ug-s-
  • *h₂owg-éye- (causative)
  • *h₂éwg-os ~ *h₂éwg-es-
    • Indo-Iranian: *auga(s)-, *auǰas-
      • Indo-Aryan:
        • Sanskrit: ओजस् (ójas, bodily strength, vigour, energy, ability, power)
      • Iranian: *auga(h)-, *auǰah- (strength, power)
        • Avestan: [script needed] (aogō-, might, power), [script needed] (aoǰah-, power)
        • Bactrian: ωζο (ōzo)
        • Khotanese: [script needed] (oṇa-, powerful) (possibly)
        • Kurdish: hêz (power), hoz (tribe)
        • Middle Persian: ʾwc (ōz, strength, power)
        • Old Armenian: առ-ոյգ (aṙ-oyg), ոյժ (oyž), (possibly) աշխոյժ (ašxoyž)
        • Old Persian: *auja(h)-
    • Italic: *augos
  • *h₂ewg-os-to-
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Armenian:
    • Celtic: *ouxselos
    • Celtic: *ouxs-, *uxs-
      • Old Irish: uas
    • Germanic: (perhaps) *auk
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Iranian:
        • Avestan: [script needed] (uxšiieitī, grows), [script needed] (vaxšt, lets grow)
        • Middle Persian: [script needed] (waxšīdan, to grow)
      • Balto-Slavic:


  • Rastorgujeva, V. S.; Edelʹman, D. I. (2000) Etimologičeskij slovarʹ iranskix jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of Iranian Languages] (in Russian), volume I, Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura, page 258
  • Mayrhofer, Manfred (1992) Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen (in German), volume I, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 278