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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *k-la (Matisoff, STEDT)

Borrowing from Proto-Mon-Khmer *klaʔ (tiger), whence also Thai ขลา (khla, tiger).


Panthera tigris corbetti, the Indochinese tiger.


  1. tiger


  • Old Chinese: /*qʰˁraʔ/ (B-S, western dialect), /qʰlaːʔ/ (ZS) ("tiger"), 於菟, 烏䖘, /*qa-tʰaː/ < /**ʔa-l̥aː/ < /**ʔa- + **klaː/ invalid IPA characters (/</**/</**+**) (ancient Chu dialect, "tiger"), 於檡 /*qa-rlaːɡ < **ʔa-l̥aːg/ invalid IPA characters (<**g), replace g with ɡ (variant, "tiger")
    ( in the oracle bone script) 虎-oracle.svg
    • Middle Chinese: /huoX/ invalid IPA characters (X)

         Japanese:   (, ​ko)
            Korean:   (, ho)
            Vietnamese:  hổ

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /xu²¹⁴/)
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /fuː³⁵/
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: /hɯ³⁴/
    • Min
      • Min Nan
        • Taiwan: /hɔ⁵¹/
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      /*(k-)la/ (Benedict, 1972)
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: ကျား (kya:, tiger) (< kla (Inscriptional Burmese))
          • Modern Burmese (Rangoon): /tɕá/
      • Loloish
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (lat, tiger)
        • Central Loloish
          • Lisu (Southern): ꓡꓽ (, tiger)