Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/kləj

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *xryid (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *kləy (Matisoff, STEDT); *kliy (Benedict, 1972; Weidert, 1987); *klyiy (*B) (Coblin, 1986); *kləy (Chou, 1972)

Noun[edit]

  1. shit, dung, excrement

Descendants[edit]

  • Old Chinese: /*qʰijʔ, *l̥ij/ (B-S), /*hliʔ, *hri/ (ZS) ("shit, dung, excrement")
    • Middle Chinese: /ɕɣiɪX, hiɪ/

         Japanese:   (, shi)
            Korean:   (si) (, si)
            Vietnamese:  thỉ

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (shǐ, /ʂʐ̩²¹⁴/)
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /ɕiː³⁵/
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: /sz̩³⁴/
    • Min
      • Min Nan
        • Taiwan: /sai⁵¹/ (colloquial), /su⁵¹/ (literary)
  • Kamarupan
    • "Naga"
      • Northern Naga
        /*CⓁ-kləy/ (French, 1983)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: ལྕི་བ (lci ba, dung (esp. of cow)) (via Conrady's law + Coblin's law)
      • Tamangic
        /*kli¹/ (Mazaudon, 1978)
    • Mahakiranti
      /*khli/ (Michaelovsky, 1991)
  • Jingpho-Asakian
    • Jingpho
      • Jingpho [Kachin]: hkyi (excrement)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
      • Loloish
        /*ʔ/k(l)e²/ (Bradley, 1979)
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (xy, excrement, faeces) (> ꑭꒉ (xy yy, liquid excrement))
        • Central Loloish
          • Lisu (Southern): ꓛꓲꓽ (t͡ʃʰì, dung, faeces), also ꓞꓲꓽ (t͡sʰɨ̀, faeces)
  • Karenic:

See also[edit]