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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *m-hla (Matisoff, STEDT); *(m-)hla (Benedict, 1972; LaPolla, 1987)


  1. soul
  2. god
  3. demon
  4. beautiful


  • Kamarupan
    • Kuki-Chin
      /*khlaa/ (VanBik, 2009)
      • Central Chin
        • Lushai [Mizo]: thla ‎(spirit, soul; god; ghost; shadow, image)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: ལྷ ‎(lha, god, deity)
            • Modern Tibetan (Lhasa): /ɬa˥˧/
      • Tamangic
        /*ᴬʰla, ᴬʰlu, ᴬHla, ᴬHlaː/ (Mazaudon, 1994)
  • Jingpho-Nung-Asakian
    • Jingpho
      • Jingpho [Kachin]: minla ‎(ghost), numla ‎(spirit, image, soul), sumla ‎(picture)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: လှ ‎(hla., pretty, beautiful)
          • Modern Burmese (Rangoon): /ɬa˥˧/
      • Loloish
        /*ʔ-la¹/ ("soul") (Bradley, 1979)
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): ‎(hla, soul, spirit) (> ꒌꆠ ‎(yyr hla, ghost, soul, spirit))
        • Central Loloish
          • Lisu (Northern): ꓦꓻ ‎(h̃a, soul) (> ꓞꓳꓻ ꓦꓻ ‎(tsʰo h̃a, soul (of a dead person)))

See also[edit]