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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *syɨs (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *syey-s (Matisoff, STEDT); *syey (Benedict, 1972; Chou, 1972; LaPolla, 1987; Weidert, 1987); *syey (*C) (Coblin, 1986)



  1. to know


  • Old Chinese: /*sit/ (B-S), /*sid/ (ZS) ("all, completely; detailed; to know, to understand")
    • Middle Chinese: /siɪt/

         Japanese:   (しつ, ​shitsu)
            Korean:   (, sil)
            Vietnamese:  tất

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (), /ɕi⁵⁵/)
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /ɕɪk̚⁵/
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: /ɕiɪ̆ʔ⁵⁵/
  • Kamarupan
    • Kuki-Chin: *thay-I, thayʔ-II (know, able, hear) (VanBik, 2009)
      • Central Chin
        • Lushai [Mizo]: thei (can, may; able, capable)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: ཤེས་པ (shes pa, to know, to understand, to cognise, to realise, to be aware)
  • Jingpho-Asakian
    • Jingpho
      • Jingpho [Kachin]: shiga (news)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese: *šey²/³ (Matisoff, 2003)
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: သိ (si., to know, to be acquainted with)
      • Loloish: *si² (Bradley, 1979)
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (syp, to know, understand, recognise, be familiar with), (syx, to know, meet, get to know)
        • Central Loloish
  • Karenic:

See also[edit]