Reconstruction:Proto-Celtic/ardwos

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This Proto-Celtic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Celtic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *h₃r̥dʰwós. Cognate with Latin arduus.

Adjective[edit]

*ardwos

  1. high

Inflection[edit]

O/ā-stem
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *ardwos *ardwou *ardwoi
vocative *ardwe *ardwou *ardwūs
accusative *ardwom *ardwou *ardwoms
genitive *ardwī *ardwous *ardwom
dative *ardwūi *ardwobom *ardwobos
instrumental *ardwū *ardwobim *ardwobis
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *ardwā *ardwai *ardwās
vocative *ardwā *ardwai *ardwās
accusative *ardwam *ardwai *ardwams
genitive *ardwās *ardwous *ardwom
dative *ardwai *ardwābom *ardwābos
instrumental *? *ardwābim *ardwābis
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *ardwom *ardwou *ardwā
vocative *ardwom *ardwou *ardwā
accusative *ardwom *ardwou *ardwā
genitive *ardwī *ardwous *ardwom
dative *ardwūi *ardwobom *ardwobos
instrumental *ardwū *ardwobim *ardwobis

Descendants[edit]

  • Proto-Brythonic: *arð
  • Old Irish: ard
  • Gaulish: Arduenna (place name)

References[edit]

R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “ardd”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies