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This Proto-Celtic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative forms[edit]

  • *knekkos


Apparently cognate with Proto-Germanic *hnakkô (the back of the neck; nape), of uncertain further origin, but both are traditionally derived from Proto-Indo-European *kneg- or *knek-.[1] It is sometimes suggested that the Germanic cognate is borrowed from Celtic (cf. especially German Hunke (hillock)). Alternatively, Kroonen argues for an inherited basis of the geminate cluster in the Germanic term, and that consequently the Celtic is more likely borrowed from Germanic.[2][3] Compare Tocharian A kñuk (neck).


*knokkos m[1]

  1. protuberance; hill


Masculine o-stem
singular dual plural
nominative *knokkos *knokkou *knokkoi
vocative *knokke *knokkou *knokkūs
accusative *knokkom *knokkou *knokkoms
genitive *knokkī *knokkous *knokkom
dative *knokkūi *knokkobom *knokkobos
instrumental *knokkū *knokkobim *knokkobis


  • Proto-Brythonic: *knox
  • Goidelic:[4]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*knokko-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 211
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*hnekkan ~ *hnakka(n)-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 234
  3. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2011) The Proto-Germanic n-stems: A study in diachronic morphophonology, Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, pages 167–169
  4. ^ G. Toner, M. Ní Mhaonaigh, S. Arbuthnot, D. Wodtko, M.-L. Theuerkauf, editors (2019), “cnocc”, in eDIL: Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language