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This Proto-Finnic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Unknown origin. The Estonian reflex been compared with words in Samic and Mordvinic (e.g. Erzya орма (orma, disease)) that would, however, require h- as attested in Northern Finnic to be secondary. Contamination from Finnish huuma may be possible.


A number of direct descendants and derivatives show a meaning 'blood' or 'wound', usually used in poetic or mythical contexts (the semantically neutral term for 'blood' remains *veri in all Finnic languages), explained as being through the mythical belief in blood carrying a person's mental and spiritual power. Toivonen (1944) suggests this as the primary original meaning.



  1.  ? excitement, ecstacy, charm

Derived terms[edit]


  • Estonian: urm (blood, wound)
  • Finnish: hurma, hurme (blood)
  • Ingrian: hurmahenki
  • Karelian: (Northern, poetic) hurmeh (blood)
  • Livonian: ūrma (stream, flow) (< 'flowing blood')


  • urm in Metsmägi, Iris; Sedrik, Meeli; Soosaar, Sven-Erik (2012), Eesti etümoloogiasõnaraamat, Tallinn: Eesti Keele Instituut, →ISBN
  • Itkonen, Erkki; Kulonen, Ulla-Maija, editors (1992–2000) Suomen sanojen alkuperä [The origin of Finnish words] (in Finnish), Helsinki: Institute for the Languages of Finland/Finnish Literature Society, →ISBN
  • Toivonen, Y. H. 1944. Sanat puhuvat. WSOY.