Wiktionary:About Proto-Finnic

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Proto-Finnic is the reconstructed ancestor of the Finnic languages.

Notation[edit]

  • Short vowels: i ü u e ö o ä a
  • Long vowels: ii üü uu ee öö oo ää aa
  • Strong-grade consonants: p t k c pp tt kk cc
  • Weak-grade consonants: b d g p' t' k' c'
  • Other obstruents: s h
  • Sonorants: j l m n r v

No distinction is indicated between voiced plosives and fricatives, as this distinction was not phonemically relevant. The cluster *tk is written *ťk when its South Estonian (Võro) outcome is tsk (reflecting earlier *čk), as *tk when the outcome is kk (reflecting earlier *dk and *tk).

Where relevant — primarily old loanwords such as *hakedak, *hirvi, when no Uralic proto-form exists that makes these facts clear — a reconstruction of the earlier Proto-Finnic form may be given, with *š for *h, *č for *t or *c(i) (where applicable), *w for *v, *e for final *i. Such reconstructions should not be linked.

Lemmatization[edit]

The lemma form of nouns and adjectives is the nominative singular form, as is usual. Verbs are lemmatized under the *-dak infinitive, since most Finnic languages do the same. See under Descendants for the treatment of Estonian and Võro.

Dialects[edit]

The context label "Northern Finnic" can be used for the numerous innovative words — mainly loanwords and derivatives — attested in most of the Northern Finnic subgroup (Finnish, Ingrian, Karelian, Livvi, Ludian, Veps), but absent from the southern languages (with the possible exception of Ingrian loanwords in Votic: compare WT:About Votic). The label should not be used for words that are Proto-Uralic (Proto-Finno-Permic, etc.) inheritance, or for words some derivatives of which have been attested in the southern languages: such words must have once been present in Proto-Finnic proper as well, and only later lost in the southern languages.

Template code: {{label|fiu-fin-pro|Northern Finnic}}

Descendants[edit]

Descendants are listed in alphabetical order by language.

====Descendants====
* {{desc|et|}}
* {{desc|fi|}}
* {{desc|izh|}}
* {{desc|krl|}}
* {{desc|liv|}}
* {{desc|olo|}}
* {{desc|lud|}}
* {{desc|vep|}}
* Võro: {{l|vro|}}
* {{desc|vot|}}

Descendants should be by default listed in their literary standard forms. Please consult the language-specific Wiktionary considerations pages such as Wiktionary:About Estonian, Wiktionary:About Finnish, Wiktionary:About Karelian or Wiktionary:About Livonian, in case you are unsure about the orthographic standards of a given language.

In particular, note that:

  • The creation of standardized forms of Livonian and any Eastern Finnic languages (Karelian proper, Livvi, Ludian and Veps) is quite recent, and 20th-century sources are unlikely to cite data in accordance to them.
  • No unified literary standard has been so far established for Ingrian and Votic.
  • No general South Estonian standard exists, and Wiktionary currently recognizes only Võro, but not other varieties such as Seto, Tartu or Leivu.
  • Whether Wiktionary should treat Kven and Meänkieli separately from Finnish, or as dialects of it, is currently under (slow-burning) discussion: see Wiktionary:Requests for moves, mergers and splits#Meänkieli (fit) and Kven (fkv) into Finnish (fi).

In Estonian and Võro, it is customary (on Wiktionary and elsewhere) to use the ma-form (supine) as the lemma for verbs. In order to make comparisons between languages, and with the Proto-Finnic lemma, easier, both this lemma and the da-form should be shown in the descendants, separated by a slash. For example, for *näktäk:

  • Estonian: nägema/näha
  • Võro: nägemä/nätäq

Dialectal forms can be included, if they show substantially different development from the standard language (especially if they provide evidence relevant for the reconstruction of the Proto-Finnic form), or in case no standard-language descendant form exists. In such a case, a modifier such as (dialectal) should be used before the form. Unified formatting can be applied to these using the template {{qualifier}} (or, for short, {{qual}}).