Wiktionary:About Finnish

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Taxonomy and typology[edit]

Finnish belongs to the Finnic group of languages, which belongs to the Uralic family. It is an agglutinative language, which falls under the category of synthetic languages.


As tone is important to Chinese, rhythm is important to Finnish. Long and short vowels and consonants must be distinguished. This takes place in the same way that phonemes between words are assimilated in English, like “Take care”, “stop point”, “Sara Atkins”, “slippery eel” or “Go overboard”, without glottal stops between words.

Finnish features vowel harmony, so that certain front vowels (ä, ö, y) and back vowels (a, o, u) do not co-occur in native words. There are few consonants, and plosives are unaspirated.


For pronunciation, Template:fi-pronunciation is available. The template can automatically generate IPA pronunciation, hyphenation and rhyme data, but in some cases, it must be provided with additional info.

  • when a word geminates, use {{fi-pronunciation|*}} (or if other conditions also apply, add a * at the end). some cases include:
    • words of inflection type hame
    • verbs (dictionary form is the first infinitive, which does geminate)
    • some inflected forms (allatives of nouns or adjectives, second person singular imperatives and connegatives of verbs)
    • certain adverbs (particularly -sti, -nne or -tse)
  • compound words; provide the compound word with hyphens between the components, such as {{fi-pronunciation|valta-tie}} for valtatie = valta + tie
  • loanwords where the pronunciation cannot be determined from the spelling alone; give an approximate pronunciation as the parameter, such as {{fi-pronunciation|beisbool}} for baseball (pronounced like beisbool); hyphenation and rhyme info can be provided manually, like {{fi-pronunciation|beisbool|h=base-ball|r=eisboːl}}
  • words in which vowels are separated and not diphthongs as usual: use . between the two vowels, such as {{fi-pronunciation|seesi.um}}

To add audio pronunciations or more advanced info, please see the template documentation for help.

If you are not sure whether you can input this information correctly, you should use {{rfp|fi}} instead.


Compounds and affixes[edit]

The format for compound words and affixes conforms to WT:ETY, but Finnish has some morphological features that need attention.


To get suffixed words in the appropriate categories, such as [[Category:Finnish words suffixed with -ton]] contributors can use the template {{suffix|fi}}.


elo +‎ -ton

Many Finnish words end with more than one suffix. It is recommendable to refer words to the word they are directly derived from, if one exists. Notice that the parts are shown in their lemma forms, even if they change when integrated together, as in the case of elottomuus:
eloton +‎ -uus

However, if needed, multiple suffixes can be appended by using {{af}}; for example,

{{af|fi|elo|-ton|-uus}} gives
elo +‎ -ton +‎ -uus
Vowel harmony[edit]

Several Finnish suffixes exist as two vowel-harmonic variants. To avoid duplicating content and to keep instances of the suffix in one and the same category, back-harmonic allomorphs (suffixes with any of the vowels a o u) are treated as "default", and front-harmonic allomorphs (suffixes with any of the vowels y ä ö) should be linked to their back-harmonic counterpart. This is easiest achieved with the alt2 parameter:


Which gives:
isä +‎ -tön


To get prefixed words in the appropriate categories, such as [[Category:Finnish words prefixed with epä-]] contributors can use the template {{prefix|fi}}.


Which gives:
epä- +‎ itsekäs


To get compound words into [[Category:Finnish compound words]] contributors can use the template {{compound|fi}}.


Which gives:
ammatti (profession) +‎ kieli (language)


Glosses, if shown, should be shown

  • after each part
  • inside round brackets, inside double quotation marks
  • unitalicized

This appearance can be produced with {{m}}.

{{m|fi||ammatti||profession}} {{m|fi||kieli||language}}

Which gives the same result as {{compound}}:
ammatti (profession) kieli (language)


Inflection goes under inflection headings such as ====Conjugation==== and ====Declension====. Inflection templates are available for Finnish words. Nominals, which include nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, are declined. Verbs are conjugated. Use the inflection templates found under: Appendix:Finnish conjugation types and Appendix:Finnish declension types. For example:


For adjectives, the parameter |pos=adj should be used with declension templates:



The part-of-speech section goes under a part-of-speech heading, such as ===Verb===. Use Template:fi-noun, Template:fi-verb, Template:fi-adj, Template:fi-adv, etc. Caution: Do not indicate inflection types in the inflection parameters of the part-of-speech templates; use the inflection templates in the inflection sections instead.


Default lemma[edit]

Since Finnish words can have hundreds of possible inflections, they are organised under lemmas, or headwords. Finnish words are inflected as either nominals or verbs, and the lemmas for each are:

  • Nominals, including nouns, adjectives, and adverbs- the nominal singular.
  • Verbs- the first infinitive.

In all cases, entries for non-lemma forms should use the appropriate variant of the {{form of}} template to link to the lemma. Example:


{{head|fi|noun form}}

# {{inflection of|fi|pöytä||nom|p}}


Finnish has many dialects for such a relatively small group of people. However, there is only one standard form. Dialectal entries are listed under the ==Finnish== heading as normal, and their status as dialectal should be marked using the template {{lb}}.

The varieties of Finnish are a part of a dialect continuum with its closest relatives, especially Karelian and Ingrian, and neighboring varieties of these will be mutually intelligible with varieties of Finnish. Regardless, in Wiktionary, these languages treated as stand-alone languages and given their own headings, such as ==Karelian==. For a list of closely related languages recognized by Wiktionary, see Category:Finnic languages.


Anagrams conform to Wiktionary:Anagrams and are usually added by a bot. Spaces and punctuation are ignored. Ä, Ö, and Å are unique letters that are not interchangeable with plain letters.


Instead of the ASCII apostrophe ' (U+0027), one should use the "right single quotation mark" (U+2019) for all Finnish entries.

Sample entry[edit]


{{compound|fi|sana|kirja|t1=word|t2=book}}; a {{calque|nocap=1|fi|sv|ordbok}}.



# [[dictionary]]
#: {{ux|fi|Wikisanakirja on vapaa '''sanakirja'''.|Wiktionary is a free '''dictionary'''.}}