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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From *dʰéǵʰōm (earth) +‎ *-ō.

The initial *dʰ is regularly dropped in such a cluster (compare e.g. *ḱm̥tóm (hundred) < */dḱmtóm/, a derivative of *déḱm̥ (ten)).

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

  • dʰǵʰ-m-ṓn ~ dʰǵʰ-m̥-n-ós [1][2]
  • dʰǵʰ-ém-ōn ~ dʰǵʰ-m̥-n-ós [3][4]
  • dʰǵʰm̥mṓn [5]


*ǵʰmṓ m (Lindeman variant: ǵʰm̥mṓ m)

  1. earthling


Athematic, hysterokinetic
nominative *ǵʰmṓ
genitive *ǵʰm̥nés
singular dual plural
nominative *ǵʰmṓ *ǵʰmónh₁(e) *ǵʰmónes
vocative *ǵʰmón *ǵʰmónh₁(e) *ǵʰmónes
accusative *ǵʰmónm̥ *ǵʰmónh₁(e) *ǵʰmónm̥s
genitive *ǵʰm̥nés *? *ǵʰm̥nóHom
ablative *ǵʰm̥nés *? *ǵʰmn̥mós
dative *ǵʰm̥néy *? *ǵʰmn̥mós
locative *ǵʰmén, *ǵʰméni *? *ǵʰmn̥sú
instrumental *ǵʰm̥néh₁ *? *ǵʰmn̥mís


  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *źmṓ[6][7]
  • Proto-Germanic: *gumô (< *ǵʰm̥mṓ)[1][8] (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *hemō (< *ǵʰm̥mṓ)[2] (see there for further descendants)


  1. 1.0 1.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 195
  2. 2.0 2.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “homō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 287-288
  3. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2011) Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, revised and corrected by Michiel de Vaan, 2nd edition, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, page 66
  4. ^ Fortson, Benjamin W. (2004) Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, first edition, Oxford: Blackwell, page 64
  5. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 41
  6. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015) Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 521–522
  7. ^ Mažiulis, Vytautas (1988–1997), “smoy”, in Prūsų kalbos etimologijos žodynas [Etymological dictionary of Old Prussian] (in Lithuanian), Vilnius
  8. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 280