Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/dʰéǵʰōm

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From *dʰeǵʰ-.

However, Kloekhorst argues that the Sanskrit and Anatolian evidence point towards a reconstruction of the root *dʰeǵ- as opposed to *dʰeǵʰ- on the basis that:

  1. In the Sanskrit oblique stem jm-, -j- must reflect *ǵ-, and cannot reflect *ǵʰ-, which would regularly give -h- in all positions.
  2. The long vowel in the Hittite nom. sg. [tēkan] suggests a "voiced unaspirated" (pre-glottalised) velar. See Kloekhorst (2012).
  3. The *ǵʰ- reconstructable from Latin, Germanic and Greek can be explained in the glottalic theory as a simplification of the cluster *dʰǵ /dˀg/ to *dʰǵʰ /dg/. The opposite development is much less likely.

It should be noted, however, that the glottalic theory is not generally accepted.

A phonetically difficult, but possible connection is with *(s)teǵ- (to cover), with devoicing of *dʰ to *t via Siebs' law.[1]

Noun[edit]

*dʰéǵʰōm f[2]

  1. earth

Inflection[edit]

According to Ringe:

Athematic, amphikinetic
singular
nominative *dʰéǵʰōm
genitive *ǵʰmés
singular dual plural
nominative *dʰéǵʰōm
vocative *dʰéǵʰom
accusative *dʰéǵʰōm
genitive *ǵʰmés
ablative *ǵʰmés
dative *ǵʰméy
locative *ǵʰdʰsém, *ǵʰdʰsémi
instrumental *ǵʰméh₁

Notes:

  • Nom. from **dʰéǵʰoms
  • Acc. from **dʰéǵʰomm̥

The Hittite evidence suggests a regular hysterokinetic inflection; Kloekhorst reconstructs the original paradigm as:

Nom. Sg. *dʰéǵ-m-
Acc. Sg. *dʰǵ-ém-m
Gen. Sg. *dʰǵ-m-és

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alwin Kloekhorst (forth.) Proto-Indo-European “thorn”-clusters
  2. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  3. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195083458, § 45.1
  4. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-17336-1, page 156
  • Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-16092-7, page 859f
  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2010), “c‘amak‘”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 621–623