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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Originally meant "to enter, penetrate" with a semantic narrowing to "copulate". The original meaning can be seen in Luwian [script needed] (ipatarma-, west), [script needed] (iparwassa/i-, western) (< pre-form *ipa- (west, sunset)), Tocharian A yäw-, Tocharian B yäp- (to enter, set (of sun)); see also Ancient Greek Ζέφῠρος (Zéphuros, west wind), ζόφος (zóphos, darkness, gloom; the dark quarter, the west) . The semantic specialization was confined to the central and eastern parts of the IE speech community, and did not affect either Tocharian or Anatolian, and has left no trace in the West IE.



  1. to copulate, have sex

Derived terms[edit]

  • *h₃yébʰ-e-ti (thematic root present)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Indo-Iranian: *Hyabʰ-
      • Iranian: *Hyab-
        • Sogdian: [script needed] (ʾyʾmp- /āyamb-/, to pervert, to seduce, to deceive)

Further reading[edit]