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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Athematic root aorist of *terh₂- (to cross over).


*térh₂t (perfective)[1]

  1. to get through, cross over


Perfective, athematic, active only
3rd singular *térh₂t
3rd plural *tr̥h₂ént
Active voice Indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
1st singular *térh₂m̥ *térh₂oh₂ *tr̥h₂yéh₁m̥
2nd singular *térh₂s *tḗr, *tr̥h₂dʰí *térh₂esi *tr̥h₂yéh₁s
3rd singular *térh₂t *térh₂tu *térh₂eti *tr̥h₂yéh₁t
1st dual *tr̥h₂wé *térh₂owos *tr̥h₂ih₁wé
2nd dual *tr̥h₂tóm *tr̥h₂tóm *térh₂etes *tr̥h₂ih₁tóm
3rd dual *tr̥h₂tā́m *tr̥h₂tā́m *térh₂etes *tr̥h₂ih₁tā́m
1st plural *tr̥h₂mé *térh₂omos *tr̥h₂ih₁mé
2nd plural *tr̥h₂té *tr̥h₂té *térh₂ete *tr̥h₂ih₁té
3rd plural *tr̥h₂ént *tr̥h₂éntu *térh₂onti *tr̥h₂ih₁ént
Participle *tr̥h₂ónts

Derived terms[edit]

  • *tŕ̥h₂n̥t-s (< participle *tr̥h₂-n̥t-és)[2][3]
    • Proto-Celtic: *trāns (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Celtic: *trē (< dative *tr̥h₂n̥t-éy) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Italic: *trānts (see there for further descendants)


  • Proto-Anatolian:
    • Hittite: 𒋻𒄴𒈪 (tar-aḫ-mi /⁠taraḫmi⁠/, 1sg.pres.act.)
  • Proto-Tocharian:
    • Tocharian B: tär- (to radiate, spread out)


  1. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*terh₂-¹”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 633-634
  2. ^ Schumacher, Stefan, Schulze-Thulin, Britta (2004) Die keltischen Primärverben: ein vergleichendes, etymologisches und morphologisches Lexikon [The Celtic Primary Verbs: A comparative, etymological and morphological lexicon] (Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft; 110) (in German), Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der Universität Innsbruck, →ISBN, page 138:*trānts; *trānss
  3. ^ Malzahn, Melanie (2016) “Tudáti-presents and the tēzzi Principle”, in Sahasram Ati Srajas. Indo-Iranian and Indo-European Studies in Honor of Stephanie W. Jamison[1], Ann Arbor, New York: Beech Stave Press, page 227:*tr̥h₂-(o)nt-