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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Clear cognates are found only in Italo-Celtic, Baltic and Germanic, which may point to an old European substrate word,[1] geographically confined to the west and center of the IE world.

Persian توده(tōda, masses; heap; stack, hill, rick, tumulus) is sometimes listed as a cognate but a large semantic divergence remains unexplainable.[2]

The supposed Hittite cognate 𒌅𒍖𒍣𒅖 (tuzziš, army; camp) with the semantic shift "people" > "army" > "camp" has been criticized to be unlikely (the normal development would be "camp" > "army").[3] Kloekhorst furthermore argues that the Hittite word can formally only reflect an i-stem tewt-i-, and finally endorses an alternative etymology proposed by Melchert, from PIE *dʰh₁-uti-.

Often a derivation from the roots *tewh₂- (to be strong; swell)[4] (referring to the strength of community) and *tewH- (to look favorably; protect; observe)[5] is considered, but the presence of a laryngeal renders that suspect.[6]


*tewtéh₂ f (non-ablauting)[7]

  1. people, tribe


Thematic in *-eh₂
nominative *tewtéh₂
genitive *tewtéh₂s
singular dual plural
nominative *tewtéh₂
vocative *tewtéh₂
accusative *tewtā́m
genitive *tewtéh₂s
ablative *tewtéh₂s
dative *tewtéh₂ey
locative *tewtéh₂, *tewtéh₂i
instrumental *tewtéh₂h₁

Coordinate terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

  • *swe-tewtéh₂- (perhaps, + *swe- (self))


Further reading[edit]


  1. ^ Kloekhorst 2008: 908
  2. ^ EIEC: 417
  3. ^ Benveniste (1962: 122-5) apud Kloekhorst 2008: 908
  4. ^ LIV2: 639
  5. ^ LIV2: 639
  6. ^ EIEC: 417
  7. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1), Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  8. ^ "Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics", Matthias Fritz, 2018 -