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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. to see, perceive


  • *wél-e-ti ~ *wl-én-ti (thematic root present)[1]
    • Proto-Celtic: *weleti (to see) (see there for further descendants)
      • Proto-Celtic: *weless (seer, poet) (+ *-ess ~ *-etos) (see there for further descendants)
  • *wḗl-s-t ~ *wél-s-n̥t (s-aorist)
    • Proto-Tocharian: *yels-
      • Tocharian B: yel- (to investigate)
  • *wléy-ti (ey-aktionsart)
    • *wley- (reanalysed root)
      • *wléy-de-ti (de-present)[2]
        • >? Proto-Germanic: *wlītaną (to see, look) (perhaps more likely from a contaminated *weyd- (to see)[1]) (see there for further descendants)
          • Proto-Germanic: *wlaitōną (to search) (see there for further descendants)
          • Proto-Germanic: *wlitiz (sight, appearance, face) (see there for further descendants)
  • *wél-tu-s ~ *wl̥-téw-s[2][1]
    • Proto-Italic: *woltus
      • Latin: voltus ((facial) expression)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Proto-Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: գեղ (geł, beauty; (beautiful) appearance, look)


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “3. *u̯el-¹”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 675
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Pokorny, Julius (1959), “1. u̯el-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 1136: “u̯l̥-tu-; u̯elēts; *u̯leid- (*u̯l-ei-d-)”}