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This Proto-Iranian entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Proto-Iranian cardinal numbers
 <  6 7 8  > 
    Cardinal : *haptá


From Proto-Indo-Iranian *saptá, from Proto-Indo-European *septḿ̥.



  1. seven


  • Central Iranian:
  • Northeastern Iranian:
    • Scythian: [Term?]
      • Old Ossetic: *āvd[1]
      • Saka-Wakhi: *hafta
        • Saka: [Term?]
          • Khotanese: [script needed] (hauda), [script needed] (hoda)
          • Tumshuqese: [script needed] (hoda)
        • Wakhi: ʉb
    • Sogdo-Bactrian:
      • Bactrian: ηϐο (ēϐo /ēβ/)
      • Khwarezmian: [script needed] (ʾβd /aβd/)
      • Sogdic: *háftą[2]
        • Sogdian: (/əβdá/)
          Buddhist: [script needed] (ʾβth), [script needed] (ʾβtʾ)
          Christian: [script needed] (btʾ), [script needed] (ʾbtʾ)
          Manichaean: 𐫀𐫂𐫤𐫀(ʾβtʾ)
          Sogdian: 𐼰𐼱𐽂𐼳(ʾβth), 𐼰𐼱𐽂𐼰(ʾβtʾ)
        • Yagnobi: авд (avd), [script needed] (avt)
  • Southeastern Iranian:
    • Pamir:
      • Munji-Yidgha:
        • Munji: [script needed] (ōvdá)
        • Yidgha: [script needed] (ávdo)
      • Sanglechi-Ishkashimi:
        • Ishkashimi: [script needed] (uvd)
        • Sanglechi: [script needed] (ōvδ), Sanglechi: [script needed] (hōvδ)
        • Zebaki: [script needed] (övd)
      • Shughni-Yazgulami:
        • Shughni-Roshani:
          • Shughni: :
            Bajui: [script needed] (wūvd)
            Shughni: в̌ӯвд (wūvd)
          • Roshani: [script needed] (wūvd)
          • Bartangi-Rasharvi:
            Bartangi: [script needed] (ūvd)
            Rasharvi (Oroshori): [script needed] (ūvd), [script needed] (wūvd)
          • Sarikoli: [script needed] (ɨvd, ыvd)
        • Yazgulyam: [script needed] (uvd)
    • Parachi: hōt
    • Pashto: اووه(owë́, uwë́)
  • Northwestern Iranian:
  • Southwestern Iranian:
    • Middle Persian: (/haft/)
      Manichaean: 𐫍𐫛𐫤(hpt), 𐫍𐫜𐫤(hft)
      Book Pahlavi: [Book Pahlavi needed] (hptʿ)
      • Classical Persian: [Term?]


  1. ^ Kümmel, Martin Joachim (2016) Einführung ins Ostmitteliranische [Introduction to East-Central Iranian]‎[1] (in German), Jena: Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena
  2. ^ Novák, Ľubomír (2013) Problem of Archaism and Innovation in the Eastern Iranian Languages (PhD dissertation)[2], Prague: Univerzita Karlova v Praze, filozofická fakulta, page 169