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This Proto-Uralic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



One of the few words found in all languages of the traditional Finno-Ugric group, but absent from Samoyedic (contrast Proto-Samoyedic *nakur).


The Hungarian and Mansi forms point to *kormɜ. Kulonen (2002) and Janhunen (2009) suggest that this may be more original than the forms pointing to *-lm- (especially given that original Proto-Uralic *-lm-, for example in *śilmä, does not otherwise behave like in this lexeme); according to Kulonen, these could result from analogy with *neljä (four).


Proto-Uralic cardinal numbers
 <  2 3 4  > 
    Cardinal : *kolme


  1. three


From *kormɜ:

  • Ugric:
    • Hungarian: három
    • Mansi: хӯрум (hūrum)

From *kolme:

Related terms[edit]


  • Janhunen, Juha. 2009. "Proto-Uralic—what, where and when?" In: The quasquicentennial of the Finno-Ugrian Society. Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Toimituksia 258, pp. 57–78.
  • Kulonen, Ulla-Maija. 2002. "Suomalaiset ja suomalais-ugrilaiset luvut ja lukusanat" ('Finnish and Finno-Ugric numbers and numerals'). In: Graham Flegg, Lukujen historia: Sormilla laskemisesta tietokoneisiin, pp. 258–301. Helsinki: Art House. →ISBN

External links[edit]

  • Entry #341 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.