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This Proto-Uralic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. winter


  • Ugric:
    • Hungarian: tél
    • Khanty:
      • Northern: тӑл (tăl)
      • Eastern: тәләг (tələg)
      • Southern: [script needed] (tĕtə)
    • Mansi: та̄л (tāl)
  • Permic:
  • Mari:
  • Mordvinic:
  • Samic: *tālvē (see there for further descendants)
  • Finnic: *talvi (see there for further descendants)


  • Rédei, Károly (1986–88) Uralisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Uralic Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó
  • Itkonen, Erkki; Kulonen, Ulla-Maija, editors (1992–2000) Suomen sanojen alkuperä [The origin of Finnish words] (in Finnish), Helsinki: Institute for the Languages of Finland/Finnish Literature Society, →ISBN
  • Sammallahti, Pekka. 1988. "Historical phonology of the Uralic languages, with special reference to Samoyed, Ugric and Permic". In Sinor, Denis (ed.), The Uralic Languages: Description, History and Foreign Influences, pp. 478–554. Leiden: Brill. →ISBN.

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