Template:inherited

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undetermined [Term?]


This template is used to format the etymology of terms inherited from an earlier stage of the same language. Please only use it under the header 'Etymology'.

It invokes {{Module:etymology/templates}}. Category pages for this template are created by {{inherited cat}}. Use {{auto cat}} to automatically fill in parameters.

When to use[edit]

This template is intended for terms that have an unbroken chain of inheritance from the source term in question. For directly borrowed terms, use {{borrowing}}. For other cases, use {{derived}}.

For example, ten can be traced all the way back to Proto-Indo-European *déḱm̥t, and thus it is directly inherited from that Proto-Indo-European term. wine, meanwhile, was inherited from Old English, but was borrowed in Old English from Latin. Any inheritance that occurred before a break in the chain does not count as inheritance, and would use {{derived}}. chair was inherited from Middle English, which borrowed it from Old French, which inherited it from Latin. The English term is thus inherited from Middle English, but not from Latin.

This template should not be used for terms that were reformed morphologically during their history. A morphological change breaks the chain of inheritance. The English term hound does not derive exactly from *ḱwṓ; the stem of the word was extended with a suffix at some point (*ḱun- > *ḱuntó-) and thus cannot be considered an inheritance from the original stem. Instead, it is derived from this stem and should therefore use {{derived}}. Likewise, hundred can be traced back to Proto-Germanic *hundaradą, but this term was created anew in Proto-Germanic and cannot be traced back further. However, its individual parts can be traced to Proto-Indo-European *ḱm̥tóm and the root *Hreh₁dʰ-, so it is derived from these roots, but not inherited.

See also Wiktionary:Information desk/2015/September § Is hound inherited/descended from *ḱwṓ?.

Morphological roots normally have no descendants. Rather, roots are used in word formation, and only the words thus formed have descendants. Consequently, this template should not be used to mark derivation from ancestral roots. English do does not inherit from the root *dʰeh₁-, rather it inherits from a verb derived from this root, *dʰéh₁t. An exception is if the root itself is inherited as another root. Using {{inh}} is legitimate in that situation. This is mainly the case with Semitic languages, which still have recognisable and productive roots. Similar considerations apply with other morphological elements such as prefixes and suffixes as well. They are only inherited if they remained as recognisable and (somewhat) productive affixes throughout the history of the language. If the affixes are merely present in the word, but are not recognised as meaningful and distinct morphological elements, then they are no longer considered suffixes and thus can't be considered descendants.

Parameters[edit]

|1=
The language code (see Wiktionary:Languages) of the language which inherited the term, which should be the language of the section that the template is placed in.
|2=
The language code of the language which the term was inherited from. This language needs to be recognized by Module:languages as an ancestor of the language inheriting the term: either as a direct ancestor, or connected by a chain of direct ancestorships.
  • E.g. the direct ancestor of Old French is Latin, whose direct ancestor is Old Latin, whose direct ancestor is Proto-Italic, whose direct ancestor is Proto-Indo-European; therefore it is possible to mark Old French words as inherited from Proto-Indo-European.
|3=
The term in the source language that this term was inherited from. If empty, generates a term request ([Term?]) and places the entry in a term request category, except in some cases like derivations from families or substrates. To override this and disable the term request, use "-".
|4= or |alt=
(optional) An alternative display form to show for the term, see {{l}} and {{m}}.
|5= or |t= or |gloss=
(optional) A gloss/translation for the term, see {{l}} and {{m}}.
|tr=
(optional) A transliteration for the term, see {{l}} and {{m}}.
|pos=
(optional) A part of speech indication for the term, see {{l}} and {{m}}.
|g=, |g2=, |g3= and so on
(optional) Gender and number, as in {{l}} and {{m}}; see Module:gender and number for details.
|lit=
(optional) A literal translation for the term, see {{l}} and {{m}}.
|id=
(optional) A sense id for the term, see {{l}} and {{m}}.
|sc=
(optional) Script code to use. The template can usually figure out the correct code, so this is rarely needed. When no code is given, the template will try to detect the script based on the characters of the word, and if it fails to detect the script, the code None will be used.
|sort=
(optional) Sort key. Not normally needed.

See also[edit]