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This template returns the whole conjugation of Slovak verbs. It works with any verb and requires two or (occasionally) three parameters to do so.


  • parameter 1 – indicates whether the verb is perfective or imperfective – the recognised values are pf and impf; if the verb is impersonal, add -impers to the parameter (yielding pf-impers or impf-impers); if the verb is reflexive, add -sa or -si depending on which reflexive particle should be used;
  • parameter 2 – indicated the class and the pattern, which the given verb belongs to; the recognised values are given in the table below;
  • parameter 3 – usually unnecessary; mandatory only when parameter 2 is 3a (pattern niesť), where it specifies the 3rd person plural without the personal ending or -u, otherwise only needed with the pattern žuť (parameter 2 4d) in rare cases when the infinitive ends with -iať and the present stem (3rd person singular) ends with -aje.

Optional parameters


To use the following parameters, call them with the value 1:

  • no_impr – indicated that the verb does not form imperative;
  • no_gerund – indicated that the gerund of a given verb is not used;
  • no_pasv_part and pasv_part – indicate whether there should be or should not be the present passive participle for the verb, which is usually handled by the module itself, but sometimes this depends on facts that are way beyond the scope of the code.

Sometimes there are more possibilities for a certain form of a verb, which can be specified with these parameters:

  • impr_2sg2, impr_1pl2, impr_2pl2 – provides alternative imperative forms;
  • pres_actv_part2, past_actv_part2, pres_pasv_part2 – provides alternatives to the present/past active or passive participles;
  • transgr2 – provides an alternative transgressive;
  • gerund2 – provides an alternative gerund;
  • past_m2, past_f2, past_n2, past_pl2 – provides alternative l-participles (masculine, feminine, neutral and plural, respectively), which are then used to form the composite tenses, i.e. the conditionals, the past and the past perfect;
  • pres_futr_1sg2, pres_futr_2sg2, pres_futr_3sg2, pres_futr_1pl2, pres_futr_2pl2, pres_futr_3pl2 – provides alternative present (for imperfect verbs) or future forms (for perfect verbs).



A simple regular verb like čítať requires only 2 parameters:

The result:

The modal verb musieť belongs to the pattern vidieť (5b), but does not have imperative forms:

The result:

The verb piecť belongs to the pattern niesť (3a), therefore the 2nd form of the present stem (the 3rd person plural without the personal suffix) must be specified:

The result:

Reflexive verbs like usmiať sa need to have this specified:

The result:

Impersonal verbs like pršať need to have this specified:

The result:

Conjugation patterns


Here is a list of all verbal patterns with the values for parameter 2. The patterns are taken from the official guidelines for Slovak morphology by Jozef Ružička and co.: Morfológia slovenského jazyka, 1966.

Class I
Value Infinitive Present stem 1 Present stem 2
1 chyt-a-ť chyt-á chyt-aj
Class II
Value Infinitive Present stem 1 Present stem 2
2 rozum-ie-ť rozum-ie rozum-ej
Class III
Value Infinitive Present stem 1 Present stem 2
3a nies-ť nes-ie nes-
3b trie-ť tr-ie tr-
3c hyn-ú-ť hyn-ie hyn-
3d br-a-ť ber-ie ber-
Class IV
Value Infinitive Present stem 1 Present stem 2
4a čes-a-ť češ-e češ-
4b ža-ť žn-e žn-
4c chudn-ú-ť chudn-e chudn-
4d žu-ť žuj-e žuj-
4e pracov-a-ť pracuj-e pracuj-
Class V
Value Infinitive Present stem 1 Present stem 2
5a rob-i-ť rob-í rob--ia
5b vid-ie-ť vid-í vid--ia
5c krič-a-ť krič-í krič--ia

There are a few basic irregular verbs in the Slovak language, some more that are only derived from these:

Value Infinitive Present stem 1 Present stem 2
irreg-byť byť je s-ú
irreg-jesť jesť je jed-ia
irreg-vedieť vedieť vie ved-ia
irreg-chcieť chcieť chc-e chc-ú
irreg-ísť ísť id-e id-ú
irreg-stáť stáť stoj-í stoj-a
irreg-stať stať sa stan-e sa stan-ú sa

The verbs môcť and povedať and other verbs derived from them are handled separately in the code for the sake of simplicity, even though these forms are mostly regular according to one of the patterns mentioned above:

Value Infinitive Present stem 1 Present stem 2
irreg-môcť môc-ť môž-e môž-u
irreg-povedať povedať povie poved-ia