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See also: angèn and ängen




  1. Romanization of ᮃᮍᮨᮔ᮪



Cognate with Irish éigean (force; necessity). Perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *neḱ- (death)[1] (see angau), or cognate with Ancient Greek ἀνάγκη (anánkē, force; necessity).[2]



angen m (uncountable) (functioning as verbal noun)

  1. need
    • 1803, William Owen Pughe, "A Dictionary of the Welsh Language", Volume 1
      Perid i Ddyfrig archeſgob wynieuthu Arthur yn frenin, a dodi coron am ei ben; canys eu hangen oedd yn eu cymhell.
      Dyfrig the archbiſhop was commanded to conſecrate Arthur to be king, and to place the crown upon his head; for their neceſſity was preſſing upon them.

Usage notes[edit]

Because angen is a noun, it does not use yn with bod and has no stem, meaning it must be used periphrastically.

See also[edit]


Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
angen unchanged unchanged hangen
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.


  1. ^ R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950-), “angen”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies
  2. ^ J. Morris Jones, A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative (Oxford 1913), § 99 vi (1)