Recorded since 1793, a borrowing from French espionnage, from Middle French espionner (“to spy”), from Old French espion (“spy”), itself probably from a Germanic source (akin to Old High German spehon (“spy”)), possibly via Italian spione (from spia). More at spy.
- Lua error in Module:IPA/tracking at line 58: attempt to index global 'tracking' (a nil value)
'ĕs-pē-ŭ-näzh also Canadian -năzh; -nizh
- The act or process of learning secret information through clandestine means.
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