extramedullary

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

extra- +‎ medullary = extra- +‎ medulla +‎ -ary

Adjective[edit]

extramedullary (not comparable)

  1. (anatomy, medicine) Outside of a medulla; thus:
    1. (anatomy, medicine) Outside of the bone marrow, as with extramedullary hematopoiesis.
      • 2018, Abdulla MA; Yassin MA; Abdelrazek M; Mudawi D; Ibrahim F, “A persistent cough as atypical clinical presentation of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) in a female with thalassemia intermedia”, in Acta Biomedica, volume 89, number 2-S, DOI:10.23750/abm.v89i2-S.7086, PMID 29451228, pages 41-46:
        Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a rare disorder, defined as the appearance of hematopoietic elements outside the bone marrow or peripheral blood. The most common sites of EMH are liver and spleen, but it has been documented in other organs such as the mediastinum, lymph nodes, breast, and central nervous system. EMH occurs as a compensatory mechanism for bone marrow dysfunction in severe thalassemia.
    2. (anatomy, medicine) Outside of the medulla oblongata, as with extramedullary influences on control of ventilation.
      • 1976, Fukuda H; Akitaya T; Kirchner JA, “Evoked response in the posterior cricoarytenoid to stimulation of the ipsilateral vagus”, in Keio Journal of Medicine[1], volume 25, number 3, PMID 1022878, pages 111-122:
        As no complete study has been made of reflex response to stimulation of ipsilateral vagus in regard to extramedullary respiratory control system, the authors have tried to clarify the influence of the stimulation of the vagus on the ipsilateral posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA).
    3. (anatomy, medicine) Outside of the renal medulla, as with extramedullary electrolytes or renal tissue.
      • 1993, Henry DN; Del Monte M; Greene DA; Killen PD, “Altered aldose reductase gene regulation in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells”, in Journal of Clinical Investigation, volume 92, number 2, DOI:10.1172/JCI116629, PMID 8349800, pages 617-623:
        Similar mechanisms likely underlie the expression of relevant transporters and/or enzymes for the alternative nonperturbing osmolytes (11,12,35) in renal medullary tubular cells. Osmotic induction of AR2 and MI transport has also been described in extramedullary renal cells and in nonrenal cells rarely or never exposed to significant physiologic hyperosmolarity in vivo (31,39).
    4. (anatomy, medicine) Outside of the spinal cord, as with intrameningeal but extramedullary tissues of the central nervous system.
      • 1991, Sze, G; Twohig, M, “Neoplastic disease of the spine and spinal cord”, in Scott W. Atlas, editors, Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain and Spine[2], →ISBN, pages 921-966:
        This paper reports on neoplastic disease of the spine and spinal cord. Spinal tumors are often categorized as extradural, intraduralextramedullary, or intramedullary in location. This classification represents somewhat of an over-generalization for two reasons. First, a given lesion may reside in two compartments simultaneously. […] Second, in different cases, two lesions with identical pathology may occur in different compartments. […] Nevertheless, this classification scheme is useful, because it is traditional and helps to characterize spinal tumors.
      • 1997, “MR imaging of intramedullary and intradural-extramedullary spinal cysticercosis”, in American Journal of Roentgenology, volume 169, number 6, DOI:10.2214/ajr.169.6.9393195, PMID 9393195, pages 1713-1717:
        MR imaging revealed isolated intradural-extramedullary involvement (n = 9), isolated intramedullary involvement (n = 3), combined intradural-extramedullary and intramedullary involvement (n = 3), and/or syringomyelia caused by infection and associated with chronic spinal arachnoiditis (n = 2).

Translations[edit]