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See also: ff, fF, , FF, and



Abbreviation of Latin folio (on the (next) page), ablative of folium (leaf, page).



  1. and the following (pages, paragraphs etc.)

Usage notes[edit]

  • The abbreviation ff. is used in citation to refer to a section for which no final page number can usefully be given. When used, ff. has no space between it and the preceding number and is followed by a full stop. If there is only a single section following, f. may be used instead.
  • More properly, it is still used, as originally, to refer to the next page or pages in a citation. As such, Hornblower 258f. would refer to pages 258–259 while 258ff. would refer to an undetermined number of pages following page 258.
  • When using a book reference to find a topic, one may encounter one or more ff. references, one or more f. references, and one or more normal references. Since an ff. reference means the topic is mentioned over several pages starting at the page number preceding the ff., it is normally useful to start with the ff. reference(s), followed by the f. reference(s), and then the normal references.


Related terms[edit]





  1. ff. (and the following pages)



Originally the plural of the abbreviation of New Latin folio (on the (next) page), ablative of folium (leaf, page). Later also explained as an abbreviation of folgende.


ff. (not comparable)

  1. (of pages) Abbreviation of folgende(n) pl (“following”, “subsequent”)
  2. akin to the English ff., et seqq.. (The word fortfolgend has been coined as a folk etymological explanation of this abbreviation and is not encountered in other use than this fanciful explanation, which is in fact a backronym.)
    • 1926–8, Leumann–Hofmann–Szantyr, Lateinische Grammatik I: Lateinische Laut- und Formenlehre (2nd ed., 1977), Formenlehre Nomen II.B, § 273:1.d, page 290:
      Lit. zu den Gentilicia (aus Patronymika): Schulze, EN 385 f. -eius, 432 ff. -eius (bei etrusk. Namenstämmen älter noch -aeus), 457 f. -eius und -uleius; dazu 284 lēguleius sterteius.
      Literature pertaining to nomina gentilicia (from patronyms): Schulze, EN 385 f. -eius, 432 ff. -eius (older still in Etruscan name stems -aeus), 457 f. -eius and -uleius; as in 284 lēguleius sterteius.