hlangana

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Swazi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Nguni *-hlangana, from Proto-Bantu *-càngana.

Verb[edit]

-hlángana

  1. to meet

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


Xhosa[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Nguni *-hlangana, from Proto-Bantu *-càngana.

Verb[edit]

-hlángana

  1. to meet

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


Zulu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Nguni *-hlangana, from Proto-Bantu *-càngana.

Verb[edit]

-hlangana

  1. (intransitive) to meet, to come together
  2. (intransitive) to assemble
  3. (intransitive) to combine
  4. (intransitive) to unite
  5. (intransitive) to mix

Inflection[edit]

Tone L
Infinitive ukuhlangana
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukuhlangana ukungahlangani
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular hlangana -hlangane
Plural hlanganani -hlanganeni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyahlangana, ngihlangana engihlanganayo, engihlangana ngihlangana angihlangani engingahlangani ngingahlangani
2nd singular uyahlangana, uhlangana ohlanganayo, ohlangana uhlangana awuhlangani ongahlangani ungahlangani
1st plural siyahlangana, sihlangana esihlanganayo, esihlangana sihlangana asihlangani esingahlangani singahlangani
2nd plural niyahlangana, nihlangana enihlanganayo, enihlangana nihlangana anihlangani eningahlangani ningahlangani
Class 1 uyahlangana, uhlangana ohlanganayo, ohlangana ehlangana akahlangani ongahlangani engahlangani
Class 2 bayahlangana, bahlangana abahlanganayo, abahlangana behlangana abahlangani abangahlangani bengahlangani
Class 3 uyahlangana, uhlangana ohlanganayo, ohlangana uhlangana awuhlangani ongahlangani ungahlangani
Class 4 iyahlangana, ihlangana ehlanganayo, ehlangana ihlangana ayihlangani engahlangani ingahlangani
Class 5 liyahlangana, lihlangana elihlanganayo, elihlangana lihlangana alihlangani elingahlangani lingahlangani
Class 6 ayahlangana, ahlangana ahlanganayo, ahlangana ehlangana awahlangani angahlangani engahlangani
Class 7 siyahlangana, sihlangana esihlanganayo, esihlangana sihlangana asihlangani esingahlangani singahlangani
Class 8 ziyahlangana, zihlangana ezihlanganayo, ezihlangana zihlangana azihlangani ezingahlangani zingahlangani
Class 9 iyahlangana, ihlangana ehlanganayo, ehlangana ihlangana ayihlangani engahlangani ingahlangani
Class 10 ziyahlangana, zihlangana ezihlanganayo, ezihlangana zihlangana azihlangani ezingahlangani zingahlangani
Class 11 luyahlangana, luhlangana oluhlanganayo, oluhlangana luhlangana aluhlangani olungahlangani lungahlangani
Class 14 buyahlangana, buhlangana obuhlanganayo, obuhlangana buhlangana abuhlangani obungahlangani bungahlangani
Class 15 kuyahlangana, kuhlangana okuhlanganayo, okuhlangana kuhlangana akuhlangani okungahlangani kungahlangani
Class 17 kuyahlangana, kuhlangana okuhlanganayo, okuhlangana kuhlangana akuhlangani okungahlangani kungahlangani
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngihlanganile, ngihlanganē engihlanganile, engihlanganē ngihlanganile, ngihlanganē angihlangananga engingahlangananga ngingahlangananga
2nd singular uhlanganile, uhlanganē ohlanganile, ohlanganē uhlanganile, uhlanganē awuhlangananga ongahlangananga ungahlangananga
1st plural sihlanganile, sihlanganē esihlanganile, esihlanganē sihlanganile, sihlanganē asihlangananga esingahlangananga singahlangananga
2nd plural nihlanganile, nihlanganē enihlanganile, enihlanganē nihlanganile, nihlanganē anihlangananga eningahlangananga ningahlangananga
Class 1 uhlanganile, uhlanganē ohlanganile, ohlanganē ehlanganile, ehlanganē akahlangananga ongahlangananga engahlangananga
Class 2 bahlanganile, bahlanganē abahlanganile, abahlanganē behlanganile, behlanganē abahlangananga abangahlangananga bengahlangananga
Class 3 uhlanganile, uhlanganē ohlanganile, ohlanganē uhlanganile, uhlanganē awuhlangananga ongahlangananga ungahlangananga
Class 4 ihlanganile, ihlanganē ehlanganile, ehlanganē ihlanganile, ihlanganē ayihlangananga engahlangananga ingahlangananga
Class 5 lihlanganile, lihlanganē elihlanganile, elihlanganē lihlanganile, lihlanganē alihlangananga elingahlangananga lingahlangananga
Class 6 ahlanganile, ahlanganē ahlanganile, ahlanganē ehlanganile, ehlanganē awahlangananga angahlangananga engahlangananga
Class 7 sihlanganile, sihlanganē esihlanganile, esihlanganē sihlanganile, sihlanganē asihlangananga esingahlangananga singahlangananga
Class 8 zihlanganile, zihlanganē ezihlanganile, ezihlanganē zihlanganile, zihlanganē azihlangananga ezingahlangananga zingahlangananga
Class 9 ihlanganile, ihlanganē ehlanganile, ehlanganē ihlanganile, ihlanganē ayihlangananga engahlangananga ingahlangananga
Class 10 zihlanganile, zihlanganē ezihlanganile, ezihlanganē zihlanganile, zihlanganē azihlangananga ezingahlangananga zingahlangananga
Class 11 luhlanganile, luhlanganē oluhlanganile, oluhlanganē luhlanganile, luhlanganē aluhlangananga olungahlangananga lungahlangananga
Class 14 buhlanganile, buhlanganē obuhlanganile, obuhlanganē buhlanganile, buhlanganē abuhlangananga obungahlangananga bungahlangananga
Class 15 kuhlanganile, kuhlanganē okuhlanganile, okuhlanganē kuhlanganile, kuhlanganē akuhlangananga okungahlangananga kungahlangananga
Class 17 kuhlanganile, kuhlanganē okuhlanganile, okuhlanganē kuhlanganile, kuhlanganē akuhlangananga okungahlangananga kungahlangananga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāhlangana engāhlangana ngāhlangana angihlangananga engingahlangananga ngingahlangananga
2nd singular wāhlangana owāhlangana wāhlangana awuhlangananga ongahlangananga ungahlangananga
1st plural sāhlangana esāhlangana sāhlangana asihlangananga esingahlangananga singahlangananga
2nd plural nāhlangana enāhlangana nāhlangana anihlangananga eningahlangananga ningahlangananga
Class 1 wāhlangana owāhlangana āhlangana akahlangananga ongahlangananga engahlangananga
Class 2 bāhlangana abāhlangana bāhlangana abahlangananga abangahlangananga bengahlangananga
Class 3 wāhlangana owāhlangana wāhlangana awuhlangananga ongahlangananga ungahlangananga
Class 4 yāhlangana eyāhlangana yāhlangana ayihlangananga engahlangananga ingahlangananga
Class 5 lāhlangana elāhlangana lāhlangana alihlangananga elingahlangananga lingahlangananga
Class 6 āhlangana āhlangana āhlangana awahlangananga angahlangananga engahlangananga
Class 7 sāhlangana esāhlangana sāhlangana asihlangananga esingahlangananga singahlangananga
Class 8 zāhlangana ezāhlangana zāhlangana azihlangananga ezingahlangananga zingahlangananga
Class 9 yāhlangana eyāhlangana yāhlangana ayihlangananga engahlangananga ingahlangananga
Class 10 zāhlangana ezāhlangana zāhlangana azihlangananga ezingahlangananga zingahlangananga
Class 11 lwāhlangana olwāhlangana lwāhlangana aluhlangananga olungahlangananga lungahlangananga
Class 14 bāhlangana obāhlangana bāhlangana abuhlangananga obungahlangananga bungahlangananga
Class 15 kwāhlangana okwāhlangana kwāhlangana akuhlangananga okungahlangananga kungahlangananga
Class 17 kwāhlangana okwāhlangana kwāhlangana akuhlangananga okungahlangananga kungahlangananga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingahlangana ngingahlangana ngingehlangane ngingehlangane
2nd singular ungahlangana ungahlangana ungehlangane ungehlangane
1st plural singahlangana singahlangana singehlangane singehlangane
2nd plural ningahlangana ningahlangana ningehlangane ningehlangane
Class 1 angahlangana engahlangana angehlangane engehlangane
Class 2 bangahlangana bengahlangana bangehlangane bengehlangane
Class 3 ungahlangana ungahlangana ungehlangane ungehlangane
Class 4 ingahlangana ingahlangana ingehlangane ingehlangane
Class 5 lingahlangana lingahlangana lingehlangane lingehlangane
Class 6 angahlangana engahlangana angehlangane engehlangane
Class 7 singahlangana singahlangana singehlangane singehlangane
Class 8 zingahlangana zingahlangana zingehlangane zingehlangane
Class 9 ingahlangana ingahlangana ingehlangane ingehlangane
Class 10 zingahlangana zingahlangana zingehlangane zingehlangane
Class 11 lungahlangana lungahlangana lungehlangane lungehlangane
Class 14 bungahlangana bungahlangana bungehlangane bungehlangane
Class 15 kungahlangana kungahlangana kungehlangane kungehlangane
Class 17 kungahlangana kungahlangana kungehlangane kungehlangane
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizohlangana engizohlangana ngizohlangana angizuhlangana engingezuhlangana ngingezuhlangana
2nd singular uzohlangana ozohlangana uzohlangana awuzuhlangana ongezuhlangana ungezuhlangana
1st plural sizohlangana esizohlangana sizohlangana asizuhlangana esingezuhlangana singezuhlangana
2nd plural nizohlangana enizohlangana nizohlangana anizuhlangana eningezuhlangana ningezuhlangana
Class 1 uzohlangana ozohlangana ezohlangana akazuhlangana ongezuhlangana engezuhlangana
Class 2 bazohlangana abazohlangana bezohlangana abazuhlangana abangezuhlangana bengezuhlangana
Class 3 uzohlangana ozohlangana uzohlangana awuzuhlangana ongezuhlangana ungezuhlangana
Class 4 izohlangana ezohlangana izohlangana ayizuhlangana engezuhlangana ingezuhlangana
Class 5 lizohlangana elizohlangana lizohlangana alizuhlangana elingezuhlangana lingezuhlangana
Class 6 azohlangana azohlangana ezohlangana awazuhlangana angezuhlangana engezuhlangana
Class 7 sizohlangana esizohlangana sizohlangana asizuhlangana esingezuhlangana singezuhlangana
Class 8 zizohlangana ezizohlangana zizohlangana azizuhlangana ezingezuhlangana zingezuhlangana
Class 9 izohlangana ezohlangana izohlangana ayizuhlangana engezuhlangana ingezuhlangana
Class 10 zizohlangana ezizohlangana zizohlangana azizuhlangana ezingezuhlangana zingezuhlangana
Class 11 luzohlangana oluzohlangana luzohlangana aluzuhlangana olungezuhlangana lungezuhlangana
Class 14 buzohlangana obuzohlangana buzohlangana abuzuhlangana obungezuhlangana bungezuhlangana
Class 15 kuzohlangana okuzohlangana kuzohlangana akuzuhlangana okungezuhlangana kungezuhlangana
Class 17 kuzohlangana okuzohlangana kuzohlangana akuzuhlangana okungezuhlangana kungezuhlangana
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyohlangana engiyohlangana ngiyohlangana angiyuhlangana engingeyuhlangana ngingeyuhlangana
2nd singular uyohlangana oyohlangana uyohlangana awuyuhlangana ongeyuhlangana ungeyuhlangana
1st plural siyohlangana esiyohlangana siyohlangana asiyuhlangana esingeyuhlangana singeyuhlangana
2nd plural niyohlangana eniyohlangana niyohlangana aniyuhlangana eningeyuhlangana ningeyuhlangana
Class 1 uyohlangana oyohlangana eyohlangana akayuhlangana ongeyuhlangana engeyuhlangana
Class 2 bayohlangana abayohlangana beyohlangana abayuhlangana abangeyuhlangana bengeyuhlangana
Class 3 uyohlangana oyohlangana uyohlangana awuyuhlangana ongeyuhlangana ungeyuhlangana
Class 4 iyohlangana eyohlangana iyohlangana ayiyuhlangana engeyuhlangana ingeyuhlangana
Class 5 liyohlangana eliyohlangana liyohlangana aliyuhlangana elingeyuhlangana lingeyuhlangana
Class 6 ayohlangana ayohlangana eyohlangana awayuhlangana angeyuhlangana engeyuhlangana
Class 7 siyohlangana esiyohlangana siyohlangana asiyuhlangana esingeyuhlangana singeyuhlangana
Class 8 ziyohlangana eziyohlangana ziyohlangana aziyuhlangana ezingeyuhlangana zingeyuhlangana
Class 9 iyohlangana eyohlangana iyohlangana ayiyuhlangana engeyuhlangana ingeyuhlangana
Class 10 ziyohlangana eziyohlangana ziyohlangana aziyuhlangana ezingeyuhlangana zingeyuhlangana
Class 11 luyohlangana oluyohlangana luyohlangana aluyuhlangana olungeyuhlangana lungeyuhlangana
Class 14 buyohlangana obuyohlangana buyohlangana abuyuhlangana obungeyuhlangana bungeyuhlangana
Class 15 kuyohlangana okuyohlangana kuyohlangana akuyuhlangana okungeyuhlangana kungeyuhlangana
Class 17 kuyohlangana okuyohlangana kuyohlangana akuyuhlangana okungeyuhlangana kungeyuhlangana
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngihlangane ngingahlangani
2nd singular uhlangane ungahlangani
1st plural sihlangane singahlangani
2nd plural nihlangane ningahlangani
Class 1 ahlangane angahlangani
Class 2 bahlangane bangahlangani
Class 3 uhlangane ungahlangani
Class 4 ihlangane ingahlangani
Class 5 lihlangane lingahlangani
Class 6 ahlangane angahlangani
Class 7 sihlangane singahlangani
Class 8 zihlangane zingahlangani
Class 9 ihlangane ingahlangani
Class 10 zihlangane zingahlangani
Class 11 luhlangane lungahlangani
Class 14 buhlangane bungahlangani
Class 15 kuhlangane kungahlangani
Class 17 kuhlangane kungahlangani
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngahlangana ngangahlangana, angahlangana, angangahlangana
2nd singular wahlangana wangahlangana, awahlangana, awangahlangana
1st plural sahlangana sangahlangana, asahlangana, asangahlangana
2nd plural nahlangana nangahlangana, anahlangana, anangahlangana
Class 1 wahlangana wangahlangana, akahlangana, akangahlangana
Class 2 bahlangana bangahlangana, abahlangana, abangahlangana
Class 3 wahlangana wangahlangana, awahlangana, awangahlangana
Class 4 yahlangana yangahlangana, ayahlangana, ayangahlangana
Class 5 lahlangana langahlangana, alahlangana, alangahlangana
Class 6 ahlangana angahlangana, awahlangana, awangahlangana
Class 7 sahlangana sangahlangana, asahlangana, asangahlangana
Class 8 zahlangana zangahlangana, azahlangana, azangahlangana
Class 9 yahlangana yangahlangana, ayahlangana, ayangahlangana
Class 10 zahlangana zangahlangana, azahlangana, azangahlangana
Class 11 lwahlangana lwangahlangana, alwahlangana, alwangahlangana
Class 14 bahlangana bangahlangana, abahlangana, abangahlangana
Class 15 kwahlangana kwangahlangana, akwahlangana, akwangahlangana
Class 17 kwahlangana kwangahlangana, akwahlangana, akwangahlangana

References[edit]