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Middle Persian[edit]


Probably from Proto-Iranian *kāta-ka-, from *kāta-, the perfect passive participle of the root *kā(H)- (to take pleasure, desire), from Proto-Indo-European *keh₂- (to desire, wish); see there for more.

Alternatively, from the Proto-Iranian [Term?] root *kāt- (to roll, turn; to overturn, topple over).

In any case, cognate with the Old Armenian loanword կատակ (katak, play, joke), Sogdian [script needed] (kʾtʾk, game, play), Chorasmian [script needed] (kʾt, game), Central Kurdish کایە(kaye, game), Zazaki kay (game), Mazanderani کا(, game).


kʾtk' (kādag)

  1. game, joke


  • MacKenzie, D. N. (1971), “kādag”, in A concise Pahlavi dictionary, London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press, page 48
  • Nyberg, H. S. (1974), “kātak”, in A Manual of Pahlavi, Part II: Glossary, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, page 116a
  • Edelʹman, D. I. (2011) Etimologičeskij slovarʹ iranskix jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of Iranian Languages] (in Russian), volume IV, Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura, pages 340, 384
  • Cheung, Johnny (2007) Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 2), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-15496-4, page 227
  • Cabolov, R. L. (2001) Etimologičeskij slovarʹ kurdskovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Kurdish Language] (in Russian), volume I, Moscow: Russian Academy Press Vostochnaya Literatura, page 547