- A naturally-occurring amino acid found in food, converted into dopamine in the brain and body, and administered clinically in the management of Parkinson's disease and dopa-responsive dystonia.
2007 January 4, Denise Grady, “Studies Find Harm in 2 Parkinson’s Drugs”, in New York Times:
- But Dr. Okun said it would cost no more to switch patients to the old Parkinson’s standby drug, L-dopa or levodopa, which has side effects of its own, but has never been known to damage heart valves.
- 2012, Franz Hefti, William J. Weiner, Progress in Parkinson Research (page 64)
- We have observed that treatment with bromocriptine and levodopa prolongs the antitremor effectiveness of levodopa in monkeys with unilateral VMT lesions of the brain stem.