masca

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See also: mascá, mascâ, and mască

Latin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *maskā (mesh), from the practice of wearing mesh netting over the face as a mask to filter air, keeping soot and dust particles from entering the lungs. As in German Larve or Fratze—and other words the reader may adduce for completion—, via the idea of any nightmarish appearance senses of “a spectre” and “a witch” secondarily derived, though they be attested and perhaps borrowed before the main sense in Latin.

A variation with an -r- suffix, perhaps *maskā +‎ *-þr +‎ *-ā, found already simplified in Old English mæscre, was presumably also borrowed into Latin, to account for Italian maschera, resolving the consonant cluster further by anaptyxis, and perhaps connecting the Latin-Romance suffix -āria, and some adduce Old French mascurer, maschurer (to blacken (the face)), Occitan mascarar, Catalan mascarar, Walloon maxhurer, derived from mascher (to thump) and well-known Arabic مَسْخَرَة(masḵara, buffoon, fool, laughing-stock, anything ridiculous) from سَخِرَ(saḵira, to ridicule, to laugh at), for which derivation one would have to imagine Early Islamic society inclined to comedy even towards the Christian world, apparently contrasting the dark notions behind the Germanic term.

Noun[edit]

masca f (genitive mascae); first declension [first attested in 643][1]

  1. witch, hag
    • 643, Edictum Rothari, 197:
      De crimen nefandum. Si quis mundium de puella libera aut muliere habens eamque strigam, quod est mascam, clamaverit, excepto pater aut frater, ammittat mundium ipsius, ut supra, et illa potestatem habeat vult ad parentes, vult curtem regis cum rebus suis propriis se commendare, qui mundium eius in potestatem debeat habere. Et si vir ille negaverit, hoc crimen non dixissit, liceat eum se pureficare et mundium, sicut habuit, habere, si se pureficaverit.
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
    • 643, Edictum Rothari, 376:
      Nullus presumat aldiam alienam aut ancillam quasi strigam, quem dicunt mascam, occidere, quod christianis mentibus nullatenus credendum est nec possibilem, ut mulier hominem vivum intrinsecus possit comedere. Si quis de cetero talem inlecitam et nefandam rem penetrare presumpserit: si aldiam occiderit, conponat pro statum eius solidos LX, et insuper addat pro culpa solidos centum, medietatem regi et medietatem cuius aldia fuerit. Si autem ancilla fuerit, conponat pro statum eius, ut supra constitutum est, si ministiriales aut rusticana fuerit; et insuper pro culpa solidos LX, medietatem regi et medietatem cuius ancilla fuerit. Si vero iudex huic opus malum penetrare iusserit, ipse de suo proprio pena suprascripta conponat.
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
  2. spectre; nightmare
  3. mask

Declension[edit]

First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative masca mascae
Genitive mascae mascārum
Dative mascae mascīs
Accusative mascam mascās
Ablative mascā mascīs
Vocative masca mascae

Descendants[edit]

  • Italo-Dalmatian
    • Italian: maschera (see there for further descendants)
    • Sicilian: màscara
  • Old Occitan: masca
  • Venetian: máscara

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pfeifer, Wolfgang, editor (1993), “Maske”, in Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Deutschen (in German), 3rd edition, Akademie Verlag, →ISBN

Occitan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Occitan [Term?], from Medieval Latin masca (specter, nightmare); see mask for more.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Noun[edit]

masca f (plural mascas)

  1. witch (person who uses magic)
  2. mask

Synonyms[edit]


Old High German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *maskwǭ (mesh).

Noun[edit]

masca f

  1. mesh

Descendants[edit]


Portuguese[edit]

Verb[edit]

masca

  1. Third-person singular (ele, ela, also used with tu and você?) present indicative of mascar
  2. Second-person singular (tu) affirmative imperative of mascar

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French masquer.

Verb[edit]

a masca (third-person singular present maschează, past participle mascat1st conj.

  1. to mask, to hide

Conjugation[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Verb[edit]

masca

  1. Informal second-person singular () affirmative imperative form of mascar.
  2. Formal second-person singular (usted) present indicative form of mascar.
  3. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present indicative form of mascar.