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From Proto-Indo-European *mug-, *mūg-, onomatopoeic form, reminiscent of cow's lowing. Cognates include Ancient Greek μυκάομαι ‎(mukáomai, to low, bellow), Lithuanian mū̃kti ‎(to bellow) and Russian мычать ‎(myčát, to moo).



mūgiō ‎(present infinitive mūgīre, perfect active mūgīvī, supine mūgītum); fourth conjugation

  1. I moo, low, bellow.
  2. (of inanimate things) I roar, rumble, bray, groan.


   Conjugation of mugio (fourth conjugation, active only)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present mūgiō mūgīs mūgit mūgīmus mūgītis mūgiunt
imperfect mūgiēbam mūgiēbās mūgiēbat mūgiēbāmus mūgiēbātis mūgiēbant
future mūgiam mūgiēs mūgiet mūgiēmus mūgiētis mūgient
perfect mūgīvī mūgīvistī mūgīvit mūgīvimus mūgīvistis mūgīvērunt, mūgīvēre
pluperfect mūgīveram mūgīverās mūgīverat mūgīverāmus mūgīverātis mūgīverant
future perfect mūgīverō mūgīveris mūgīverit mūgīverimus mūgīveritis mūgīverint
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present mūgiam mūgiās mūgiat mūgiāmus mūgiātis mūgiant
imperfect mūgīrem mūgīrēs mūgīret mūgīrēmus mūgīrētis mūgīrent
perfect mūgīverim mūgīverīs mūgīverit mūgīverīmus mūgīverītis mūgīverint
pluperfect mūgīvissem mūgīvissēs mūgīvisset mūgīvissēmus mūgīvissētis mūgīvissent
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present mūgī mūgīte
future mūgītō mūgītō mūgītōte mūgiuntō
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives mūgīre mūgīvisse
participles mūgiēns
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
mūgīre mūgiendī mūgiendō mūgiendum

Derived terms[edit]



  • mugio” in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1879.
  • Alwin Kloekhorst (2008), Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, page 392