# p-value

## English

### Etymology

Short for probability value.

### Noun

p-value (plural p-values)

1. (statistics) In statistical significance testing, the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. [1]
• 2008, Ton J. Cleophas, A.H. Zwinderman, Toine F. Cleophas, Eugene P. Cleophas, Statistics Applied to Clinical Trials, Springer Science & Business Media (→ISBN), page 145
The larger the p-value the smaller the chance of a difference. A p-value of 1.00 means 0 % chance of a difference, while a p-value of 0.95 means a chance of difference close to 0. A p-value of > 0.95 literally means that we have > 95 per cent chance of finding a result less close to expectation, which means a chance of < (1-0.95) , i.e., < 0.05 of finding a result this close or closer. Using the traditional 5 per cent decision level, this would mean, that we have a strong argument that such []

### References

1. ^ Goodman, SN (1999), “Toward Evidence-Based Medical Statistics. 1: The P Value Fallacy.”, in Annals of Internal Medicine, volume 130, pages 995–1004