- The deformation of the Earth's crust due to tectonic activity.
1997 April 25, Nicholas Brozovic et al., “Climatic Limits on Landscape Development in the Northwestern Himalaya”, in Science, volume 276, number 5312, DOI:10.1126/science.276.5312.571, pages 571-574:
- Next Reports Climatic Limits on Landscape Development in the Northwestern Himalaya Nicholas Brozovi, * Douglas W. Burbank, Andrew J. Meigs The interaction between tectonism and erosion produces rugged landscapes in actively deforming regions.
1997 August 15, John N. Christensen et al., “Climate and Ocean Dynamics and the Lead Isotopic Records in Pacific Ferromanganese Crusts”, in Science, volume 277, number 5328, DOI:10.1126/science.277.5328.913, pages 913-918:
- Furthermore, changes in continental weathering and riverine contributions to the oceans may also be linked with climate, and hydrothermal inputs vary with tectonism.
1997 August 29, Suzanne E. Smrekar & Ellen R. Stofan, “Corona Formation and Heat Loss on Venus by Coupled Upwelling and Delamination”, in Science, volume 277, number 5330, DOI:10.1126/science.277.5330.1289, pages 1289-1294:
- The thick lithosphere predicted by these models appears to be inconsistent with even a low level of ongoing volcanism and tectonism.