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See also: nen




  1. Forms diminutives nouns or terms expressing affection.
    lapsi (child) → lapsonen (kid)
    pala (piece) → palanen (small piece)
    kulta (gold) → kultanen (darling)
    tuuli (wind) → tuulonen (gentle wind, breeze)
    Ukko (the God of Thunder) → ukkonen (thunder)
  2. Forms surnames of association, by now devoid of meaning. Can be translated as "of", the genitive case.
    virta (river) → Virtanen (River's)


Back vowel harmony declension (includes vowels a, o, u)

Front vowel harmony declension (includes vowels ä, ö, y)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Surnames ending in -nen were first recorded in Savo and Karelia in early 16th century, with -nen affixed to nicknames (Korhonen) and vernacular forms of given names (Heikkinen). In the 19th century surnames were required of all Finns, and many new names were created by adding -nen to topographic terms (Ahonen) and to words describing natural phenomena (Aaltonen).
  • 38% of Finns had a surname ending in -nen in 1985.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]





  1. rōmaji reading of ねん