bruise

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English[edit]

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Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English bruisen, brusen, from Anglo-Norman bruiser, bruser (to break, smash), from Gaulish (compare Old Irish brúu (I shatter, smash)), from Proto-Celtic *brusū (to break), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰreus- (to break) (compare Latin frustum (bit, scrap), Old Church Slavonic бръснути (brŭsnuti, to rake), Albanian breshër (hail)).
Replaced early modern English brise (compare Scots brizz), from Middle English brisen, bresen, from Old English brȳsan, briesan (to crush), from Proto-Germanic *brausijaną, causative from the same PIE root. Cognate with Old English brosnian (to crumble, fall apart), Dutch broos (brittle), German Brosame (crumb), dialectal Norwegian brøysk (breakable).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

bruise (third-person singular simple present bruises, present participle bruising, simple past and past participle bruised)

  1. (transitive) To strike (a person), originally with something flat or heavy, but now specifically in such a way as to discolour the skin without breaking it.
  2. (transitive) To damage the skin of (fruit), in an analogous way.
  3. (intransitive) Of fruit, to gain bruises through being handled roughly.
    Bananas bruise easily.
  4. (intransitive) To become bruised.
    I bruise easily.
  5. (intransitive) To fight with the fists; to box.
    • Thackeray
      Bruising was considered a fine, manly, old English custom.

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

A bruise (def. 1) caused by a handrail
A bruise (def. 2) on a quince

Noun[edit]

bruise (plural bruises)

  1. (medicine) A purplish mark on the skin due to leakage of blood from capillaries under the surface that have been damaged by a blow.
  2. A dark mark on fruit caused by a blow to its surface.

Synonyms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Verb[edit]

bruise

  1. (archaic) singular present subjunctive of bruisen